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网贷相助 退休无忧

P2P借贷能够帮人们赚取更多的受益,但对于更多的储户来说,退休金依然是更加合适的选择。

P2P网贷行业的发展如日中天,P2P金融协会数据显示,2014年上半年通过Zopa这样的在线贷款平台,累计新增贷款超过5亿英镑,有超过6.6万名散户投资者参与其中。收益率十分诱人,为长期资本积累和常规收入都提供了机会。

与此同时,对于适时推出的个人退休金投资新政(Nisa),英国财政部表示正在就一些细节问题与该行业进行非正式协商,今年的晚些时候会开始进行公众意见征询——很多人希望P2P能够成为他们退休储蓄计划中重要的一个部分。

一些人在退休之后进行P2P投资以获得稳定的收入。

退休金与投资新政Nisa

随着英国人均寿命的增长,保有大量资本用于保障退休之后的生活变得愈发重要。Prudential发现,今年65岁的人们平均能有20年退休生活,需要12.1万英镑,年均预期退休金收入1.58万英镑——这一数字包含了所有的国家退休金。由于平均寿命很可能还会不断增加,所需要的资金数额也会不断增多。Prudential的计算假设退休后收入会远远低于许多人的预期。

根据Plutus WealthThomas Diaper所言,三月预算(明年四月生效)中限制条件的松绑大大提升了退休金产品的感召力。一旦退休,储户就能对基金做出灵活的调整。此外,退休金的税费规定允许那些税率高的人们推迟纳税,直到退休后回到基本税率标准再进行纳税,这意味着退休金将会成为很多储户的首要选择。特别是对于那些想要做出贡献的雇主来说尤其是这样的,Hargreaves LansdownDanny Cox如是说。

但是对于其他人而言,尤其是那些不愿将资本拴在退休金计划上的人们,Nisa可能是个更好的选择。Diaper说,比如年轻一些的储户一般会为住房保证金而积累资本,这意味着他们没有什么理由要把资金绑定在退休金计划里。Nisa能够允许你在任何时候无税取款。

回报丰厚

Diaper说,对于那些高风险投资喜好的投资者来说,在Nisa中进行P2P投资是一种具有特别吸引力的储蓄方式。像是Zopa这样已经固定下来的平台,一般的收益率都在5%左右(取决于贷款的持续时间),资本的增长已经等同于一些股票。与此同时,P2P投资并不具备享有金融机构的补偿金计划的资格,所以你也无法享受到在银行或建房互助协会破产时所补偿的最高可达8.5万英镑资金,因此,P2P行业的违约率近几年来极低——在主要的几个平台上通常都不超过1%Cox指出,这些知名提供商有保卫基金或保险用来帮助防止资本损失。

即使是在Nisa之外,许多退休人员也正在使用P2P网贷来增加退休收入。收益通常按月支付本金和利息,有些人希望这个可以为养老金提供部分替代。MoneySuperMarket.comKevin Mountford说,我们看到许多年长的人正在使用这些平台,他们通常只投入小笔资金,然后逐步形成规模。

当然,不愿冒险和投入资金就期冀丰厚的收益只是痴人说梦,Cox认为违约率可能会随着基本利率的上涨有所上升。但是P2P平台已经拥有众多跟随者,而且看似注定要成为许多人们的长期储蓄计划中的一部分。

以Zopa为核心

P2P网贷如何能够帮助你达到退休目标呢?首先,这是一个资本增长的好方法。根据Zopa计算,如果你最初在平台上出借总额为1000英镑的资金,然后每个月追加500英镑,你将会在25年后共计获得30,439万英镑,而其中只有15,05万英镑来自你自己的腰包。这假定税前的年化收益率为5.2%,但是已经缴纳过1%的服务费,而且你又进行了收益重投。这笔资本将在你退休时提供一笔可观的收入:根据Zopa五年贷款的收益率,30,439万英镑税前每年可收益15,828英镑。贷方在Zopa的平均收益率为5%

George Osborne2014预算中宣布,P2P不久将会成为个人退休金计划的一部分,使之免于税费之苦。由于养老金的终身津贴是125万英镑(任何超过这一数字的金额都必须要纳税),所以通过P2P出借金额多少并无限制,这就成为了一个补贴其他基金的使用方法。

风险固然存在。但是从2010年起,Zopa的坏账率平均为0.25%。此外,Zopa现有活跃用户5.7万,已经有超过6亿英镑资金通过这一平台贷出。Zopa还有一个保障基金,目前持资500多万英镑,当一个借款者难以进行支付时,这个基金用来偿付你的资金,其中也包括了应得收益。

为了进一步降低风险,你的资金将会分散借给不同的人。这些借款者也要通过层层审查:他们必须超过20岁,成为英国公民至少3年,每年收入至少1.2万英镑,而且拥有可靠的信用记录。如果借款者尚未偿付,你需要支付1%的服务费来存取资本,你也可以每月偿还后取钱。

Peer-to-peer lending can help you to save for retirement

But pensions are still more appropriatefor many savers.

The peer-to-peer lending industry is booming. Figures from the Peer-to-Peer Finance Association showed that over £500m of new money was lent in the first half of 2014, with over 66,000 retail investors offering loans to individuals and small business though online platforms like Zopa. Returns can be attractive, offering the chance for both long-term capital accumulation and regular income.

And with plans in place to allow these investments in the new Isa (Nisa) – the Treasury says it is informally consulting with industry on the details, and will launch a public consultation later this year – many expect peer-to-peer to form an important part of some people’s retirement saving plans.

Some are using peer-to-peer investments for a steady income when in retirement

PENSIONS AND THE NISA

With UK life expectancy increasing, having a large pot of capital for retirement is of growing importance. Prudential found that someone turning 65 this year can expect an average of 20 years in retirement, and would need a pension pot of around £121,000 to receive the £15,800 average expected annual retirement income – a figure that includes the full state pension. With life expectancy likely to keep rising, the requisite pot size will grow. And Prudential’s calculations assume a post-retirement income well below what many would hope for.

The loosening of drawdown restrictions in March’s Budget (coming into force next April) has boosted the appeal of pension products, according to Plutus Wealth’s Thomas Diaper. Savers will have greater flexibility over what to do with funds once they reach retirement. And the tax treatment of pensions, allowing higher rate payers to defer taxation until they are a basic rate payer in retirement, means pensions will still be the first choice for many savers. This is particularly the case for those with employers willing to contribute, says Hargreaves Lansdown’s Danny Cox.

But for others, particularly those unwilling to tie capital up in a pension scheme, Nisas may be a better option. Diaper says that younger savers, for example, will typically be accruing capital for a house deposit, meaning there is little reason to lock funds in a pension scheme. Nisas allow you to withdraw money tax-free at any time.

STRONG RETURNS

And by extension, peer-to-peer investments in a Nisa could be a particularly attractive way to save for investors with a higher risk appetite, says Diaper. With typical returns of around 5 per cent (depending on the duration of the loan) for well-established platforms like Zopa, capital growth can be on a par with some equities. And while peer-to-peer investments don’t qualify for the Financial Services Compensation Scheme, which covers up to £85,000 of your cash in the event that a bank or building society goes bust, default rates have been extremely low in recent years  – often well below 1 per cent at the leading platforms. Cox points out that established providers have a safeguard fund or insurance to help guard against capital losses.

And even outside the Nisa, many retirees are using peer-to-peer lending for an income stream in retirement. With returns often paid in monthly chunks of capital and interest, some expect this to provide a part-replacement for annuities. Kevin Mountford of MoneySuperMarket.com says that “we are seeing a lot of older people using these platforms. They typically put a small amount in, and then gradually build it up.”

Of course, it’s naive to expect higher returns without more risk than cash, and Cox thinks default rates may increase as base rates begin to rise. But peer-to-peer platforms are building up a strong following, he says, and look set to play a part in many people’s long-term saving plans.

ZOPA FOCUS

How could peer-to-peer (P2P) lending help you reach your retirement goals? First, it’s a good way to grow capital. According to Zopa calculations, if you lent a £1,000 lump sum initially over its platform, and then added £500 each month, you would end up with a total pot worth £304,390 after 25 years, and just £150,500 would have been your contributions. This assumes a 5.2 per cent annualised return before tax, after a 1 per cent fee, and that you re-invest interest payments. And that capital could provide an attractive income once you retire: on Zopa’s five-year loan rate, £304,390 would return £15,828 before tax each year. The average return to lenders via Zopa is 5 per cent.

George Osborne announced in the 2014 Budget that P2P will soon be eligible to be included in the Isa wrapper, making it free of taxation. And while the lifetime allowance for pensions is £1.25m (any money above that amount is liable for punitive rates of taxation), there is no limit as to how much you can lend via P2P, making it a useful way to supplement other funds.

There are risks. But since 2010, bad debt on Zopa has averaged 0.25 per cent. Further, now with a community of 57,000 active lenders, over £600m has been lent through Zopa. There is also a Safeguard fund, currently holding over £5m, designed to step in and give you back your money, including interest owed, if a borrower falls too far behind on their payments.

To reduce risk further, your money is lent out in small chunks to different borrowers, who also have to pass a series of checks: they must be over 20 years’ old, UK residents for at least three years, must earn at least £12,000 a year, and have a solid credit history. And while you will need to pay a 1 per cent fee to access your capital if it hasn’t yet been paid back by borrowers, you can withdraw money as it is repaid each month.


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