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众筹在中国的特色发展之路

众筹作为一种具备可行性的筹资方式,已被证明能以不同方式灵活运作以适应本土文化偏好。打个比方,在美国,众筹被看做是一种民主工具,它使得所有投资者能够进入在过去80年一直将他们拒之门外的私人市场;然而,在中国大陆,众筹是行业的新来者,人们对众筹的反响却大为不同。中国众筹市场,对资产类别的投资诉求并不明晰。相反,中国两大领先众筹网站鼓励的是众筹所能提供的创新和社会效应。事实上,其中一家网站甚至把自己比作团购网或者预售零售公司,尽管它的创意来自Kickstarter,而非一个众筹门户。

这个现象与中美这两个全球最大的经济体的巨大文化差异是一致的,这种文化差异也影响了众筹的实践方式。比如,美国的捐献文化是很多类型的众筹的主要前提,而中国并没有那样的捐献文化。同时,在中国,管理众筹行业的规定少之又少,以至于即便是主要的众筹门户,在宣传行业和项目的时候也是谨慎为先。举个例子,一个众筹网站很可能不接受概念,转而要求需以产品为主要的交付,方能通过该门户筹集资金。这种做法减少了一个项目的投机性,很是迎合中国投资者的现实性。此外,在中国,不只一家网站会在众筹项目失败的情况下给投资者退款。除了上述理由以外,对于并不满足于投资增值的中国投资者,这又是众筹富有吸引力的一个原因。

然而,两国众筹也不无相似之处。比如,一些公司通过在众筹平台筹资的一些外围收益来支持这种筹资方式。尽管好的创意能得到天使投资者的大笔资金,但是通过众筹,一个项目能得到更多观点和意见作为参考来开发自己更好的产品。总的来说,通过大众筹资在中国大陆是个萌芽观念。尽管中央政府具体的法律仍未出炉,人们仍在积极探索推广这种融资方式的最好方法;但是,基于行业和政府都在鼓励技术创新,特别是在文化贸易方面,不少人看好众筹,相信它的发展会更好。

Crowdfinancing, as a viable means to raise capital, has proven adept at taking on different forms in order to adapt to local cultural preferences. For instance, in the United States, crowdfinancing is promoted as a democratizing instrument, allowing all investors access to the private markets from which they had been precluded for the last 80 years; however, the appeal of crowdfinacing in mainland China, which is a relative newcomer to the industry, is seen quite differently. The investment appeal of the asset class is not made as apparent. Instead, the two leading sites in China encourage the innovation and societal benefits that crowdfinancing can provide. In fact, one of the sites likened itself more to Groupon or a presale retail company, despite its inspiration from Kickstarter, rather than a crowdfinancing portal.

This corresponds with the large cultural differences between the world’s two largest economies, which has an impact on how crowdfinancing is conducted. For instance, China does not have the same donation culture as the U.S., which is a central premise of certain types of crowdfunding. Also, there are very few rules to govern this industry, which leads the main crowdfunding portal to exercise caution in promoting the industry and its projects. For example, a website may decide not to accept concepts, but rather insist that a product is a majority of the way completed before it allows for it to solicit funds through its portal. This reduces the speculative aspect of a project and appeals to the practical nature of Chinese investors. Additionally, at least one website will refund capital to every fundraiser in the event that a campaign is unable to fulfill its promises. This is attractive to Chinese investors who, in addition to the aforementioned reasons, are not content to receive simple tokens of appreciation for their investment.

However, that does not mean that there are not some similarities. For instance, some companies advocate for this type of fundraising given the tangential benefits of raising capital through these platforms. While great ideas may be able to secure ample funds from the angel community, through the crowd, a project can garner a larger pool of opinions and suggestions in order to develop a better product before its launch. Overall, raising capital from the crowd is a nascent concept in mainland China. People are still experimenting with the best way to promote this type of financing in the absence of specific laws from the central government; however, many are optimistic that it will continue to develop unhindered by the state, given how both the industry and the government seek to encourage technological innovation, particularly in cultural trades.


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