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2014年P2P平台税收信息分享:Lending Club & Prosper

【免责声明:本文旨在分享Prosper和Lending Club如何在本年度呈现其税收信息。在对本文呈现的观点采取行动前请咨询专业的建议。】

正如爱因斯坦所说“这个世界上最难理解的事情就是所得税”,这句话用在P2P借贷上显得尤其正确。美国税务局还未向这种新型的投资模式提供完善的税务申报意见,因此至少目前看来,要通过现有的复杂税收算法进行税收申报实在是一种挑战。本文试图为Prosper和Lending Club(以下简称LC)的投资者提供一些相对清晰的解释和认识。

Lending club的税收
本年度Lending Club推出了一份5页的税收指导,备受业界欢迎。这项指导意见大致描述了LC所提供的各项文件信息,比如不同投资者需填写的各种表格,其中涵盖了什么信息,已经哪些LC需要上报给税务局。无论对于个人投资者,还是那些不熟悉lending club的税务专家,这些信息都非常有用。

Lending Club将一些相关的信息简要总结在下表中,从中可以了解到你需要填写的表格类型(点击下图浏览大图)。

Lending-Club-tax-summary1 第1张

Lending club同样公布了需向税务局申报的信息。

Lending-Club-reported-info-to-IRS2 第2张

LC提供的1099-B文件(同时报送税务局)考虑了坏账的收回和售出,而如果在二级市场上有着参与则会向给投资者和税务局提供FOLIOfn文件。LC将两份文件做出区分,本质区分在于钱是来自于LC的自筹偿还还是通过FOLIOfn方式售出获得。

最后,LC讨论了税收影响下的成本问题。纳税人在通过FOLIOfn投资时有多种有效的方法来应对折价或者溢价发行的票据,正如指南所说“某些纳税人可能会选择另一种方式来对待嵌入式票据的折价或者溢价,我们推荐您参考您的税务专家意见后决定您票据的纳税基数”

2014的改变
今年最大的改变就是LC将所有的1099s都放在了一张pdf文件中,这较之以前更方便传送报告且易于查询。同样,1099s仅仅在线上可得,复印版将不会邮寄给投资者。如果在你的税务报表里面没有链接,这就意味着你有着罗斯个人退休账户或者其他退休账户一样的免税账户。

去年二月,LC发布了投资者的1099s修正版;今年他们做出了一个小的改动,但是在几天内就做出了修复。并且他们通知了所有下载了错误版1099的投资者,如果你没有收到通知说明你的没有问题。

1099-OID ——在2012年,LC将其原始发行文档进行了逐条的归档。对于2013税收年,LC其将投资者的OID合并到1099-OID中。这个“原始发行文档活动总计”账户就是报告你利息收入所得税的依据。

Lending-Club-1099-OID-Example-3 第3张

1099-MISC ——这和去年一样,只有那些从LC 收到支付、奖励、奖金的投资者才能收到这种形式的税务报表。已经有一段时间没有向投资者发放奖金了,所以也很有可能不会在1099文件夹里发现这个文档。

1099-B——这种格式表明冲销贷款的收回或者这种贷款的销售带来的收益,详见下表。

冲销贷款细节——这种形式无需上报IRS,但是对于完成1040很有帮助。去年,冲销贷款始终是Lendacademy论坛上的热议内容,人们都急于想完成自己的贷款冲销。

已被冲销的部分在1040表格上将显示为资产损失。对于那些在2013年的牛市中通过资产售出而获得资本利得的人来说,可以通过报告违约贷款的损失来达到所得税的扣除。根据税法的1211和1212条,如果一旦投资者有着资本利得或者损失,并且还是处于亏损状态,那么总共可以有最高3000美元的抵扣(或者在已婚状态下每个人有着1500美金的抵扣额)。这对于那些投资于高风险收益票据的投资者尤为有吸引力,因为这些投资通常有着更高的坏账率。

Prosper的税收
为了找到Prosper的税务报表,首先需要登录Prosper的账户,点击“历史”选项然后“报表”,如果没有发现1099合并表格,说明这是一个Prosper免税账户,你就可以忽视接下来的所有Prosper税收信息了。

Prosper-Example-1099-MISC4 第4张

Prosper的税务文件包在某些方面和LC有区别,首先就是1099-MISC,这是Prosper对于全年所收滞纳金的记录,这是一项额外收入所以必须向税务局报告,上表就是我的1099-MISC

Prosper-1099-B5 第5张

接下来是1099-B,LC将长期和短期损失记录到不同页面,而Prosper则将所有的长期或者短期损失总额都记录在第一页的开头,上图的标题列是税务局的标准,这并不意味着你的贷款被售出,总的卖价里面包含着你的票据被冲销后Prosper付给你的收入,

短期和长期的账户的差异在于,虽然两者都要通过税务局8949表格报告,但短期利得在B章节的第一部分报告,长期的部分则在E章节的第二部分报告,在1099-B的总结之后,你会看到所有在2013年发生的坏账生成的一个表单——记住你同样有着至多3000美元抵扣额。

Prosper-1099-OID-form6 第6张

Prosper的最后一个文档是1099-OID。Prosper和LC这一点上是一致的。记住“原始发行账户”条目是一个税务局的标准列项,没有任何“折价”空间。这个数字记录了你2013年总的利息收入。你的1099项目中包括了净服务费和托收票据费。

如果你在Prosper的交易平台上出售了超过10美元的票据,你就会收到一张FOLIOfn 1099-B。这张表格一般会比正式的Prosper 1099来的慢一些,通常是在2月下旬。

FOLIOfn在其纳税单的首页融合了所有纳税人所需要的信息,这些信息包括1099-DIV, 1099-INT 1099-B和 1099-MISC,尽管其中的大部分都不适用于二级市场的投资者。在FOLIOfn公布其票据销售进程、盈利情况、遭受损失的后续页面会公布一些首要信息。业界目前还没有就如何在纳税申请表上填写这些数字达成共识,所以可能需要税负专家进行进一步的研究。

关于扣除损失
很多投资者抱怨P2P借贷中课税方式,这也不难理解,因为大多数投资者会优先选择免税账户,例如个人退休免税账户。

接下来是如何剔除刚才提到的不收欢迎的课税方式。,每一年无论你获得多少利息,你仅能扣减至多3000美金的资本损失,在我们的案例中这叫做坏账冲销。如果你在其它地方有着资本利得,你依然可以有不止3000美元的冲销额度。

以我为例,我在2013年有着10000美元的坏账冲销,但是因为我售出股票获得了可观的资本利得(超过一万美金)我依然可以冲销所有的损失。但是如果我没有在其他地方的资本利得,那么我最多也就只有3000美金的冲销额度。在我的理解中,你可以将超过3000美金的部分放到未来的税收年度。

希望这样的信息是有用的,记住,正如我在文章开头时所说的,本文中内容不能被当做真正的税收建议,你应该在采取行动前参考税务专家的意见。

[Disclaimer: This post merely shares how Lending Club and Prosper are presenting their tax information this year. You should

It was Albert Einstein who said, “The hardest thing in the world to understand is income taxes.” This seems to be especially true with regards to p2p lending. Pairing an extraordinarily complex tax code with a burgeoning young investment model that is not specifically addressed by the IRS can make filing taxes challenging to say the least. This post attempts to bring a little clarity for investors in Lending Club and Prosper.

Lending Club Taxes
A welcome change at Lending Club this year was the introduction of a five-page tax guide. This helpful guide provides a general overview of the documents LC provides. It explains which investors will receive which forms, what information is included and lays out what information is reported by LC to the IRS. This information is helpful both to individuals filing their own taxes as well as tax professionals who might not be familiar with Lending Club.

Lending Club does a good job presenting the pertinent information succinctly in the following tables. If you want to know what forms you should have received take a quick look here (click on any of the graphics below to view a larger image)

Lending-Club-tax-summary1 第1张
Lending Club also discloses what information they are reporting to the IRS

Lending-Club-reported-info-to-IRS2 第2张

Lending Club breaks down the difference between the 1099-B they furnish (and report to the IRS) regarding recoveries and sales of charged off loans and what FOLIOfn supplies to the investor and IRS if there is participation in the secondary market.Essentially, the difference between these boils down to whether money was recovered by LC’s collections or if the loan was sold through FOLIOfn.

Finally, LC discusses cost basis in terms of tax implications. There are multiple approaches available to taxpayers to treat discounts and premiums when buying notes through FOLIOfn. According to the guide, “some taxpayers may have elected to take an alternative treatment to the embedded Note discount or premium. In any circumstance, we recommend that you consult with your tax advisor to determine your specific tax basis in such a Note.”

The Changes for 2014
The biggest change this year is that LC has consolidated all of the 1099s together in one PDF package, which makes referencing or mailing your statements easier than in years past. Again, 1099s are only available online and hard copies will not be mailed to investors. If you do not have a link to your tax statements, this means you have tax-free account such as a Roth-IRA or other retirement account.

Last year LC sent out revisions of investors’ 1099s toward the end of February. This year they made one minor change but captured it within a day or so. And they notified everyone who had downloaded the incorrect 1099 so if you didn’t hear from them you are ok.

1099-OID – In 2012 LC itemized the Original Issue Document (Interest Earned) on a note-by-note basis. For the 2013 tax year they have consolidated the investor’s OID into one amount on the 1099-OID. The “Total Original Issue Document Activity” amount should be reported on your income tax return as interest income.

Lending-Club-1099-OID-Example-3 第3张

1099-MISC – This is the same as last year and only investors who have received payments, incentives, or bonuses from Lending Club will receive this form in their tax statement. There have been no investor bonuses for some time so you probably did not receive this form as part of your 1099 package.

1099-B – This form indicates any recoveries from charged-off loans or any proceeds from the sale of such loans. See the information on FOLIOfn below.

Loan Charge Off Detail – This information is not reported to the IRS, but is helpful in completing your 1040. Loan charge offs were a hot topic of discussion on the Lend Academy forum last year as every investors wants to deduct all of their charged off loans.

Notes that have been charged off are treated as capital losses on your 1040. For those of you who took advantage of the bullish market in 2013 and are reporting capital gains from the sale of assets can deduct the losses from charged off notes. According to §1211 and §1212 of the tax code, if once the investor has gone through the capital gains/loss netting process, there are remaining losses, those can be used as a deduction against your regular income up to $3,000 (or $1,500 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return). This is especially of interest to those investors who invest in higher risk-return notes and typically have a higher default/charge off rate.

Prosper Taxes
To find your Prosper tax statements you need to login to your Prosper account, click on the History Tab and then Statements. If you do not see a link to your Consolidated form 1099 then you have a non-taxable account at Prosper, so you can ignore all the Prosper tax information below.

Prosper-Example-1099-MISC4 第4张
Prosper’s tax document package differs in a few ways from Lending Club. First up is the 1099-MISC. This is where Prosper records the late fees that you have received throughout the year. This is additional income so it must be reported to the IRS. Above is my form 1099-MISC.

Prosper-1099-B5 第5张

Next is the 1099-B. Where LC splits long-term and short-term losses up into different pages, Prosper consolidates everything on the same form with long-term and short-term totals at the top of the first page. Now, the title of the columns in the above graphic are IRS standards, this does not mean your loan was sold. The Total Sale Price actually includes payments that were received by Prosper after your note was charged off.

The difference between the short-term and long-term amounts is while both are reported on the IRS form 8949, short term gains are reported in Part I with Box B checked and long term proceeds are reported in Part II with Box E checked. After the 1099-B summary, you will see a list of all the charged off loans that occurred in 2013 – keep in mind that same $3,000 limit applies to deducting your losses.

Prosper-1099-OID-form6 第6张

The last document from Prosper is the 1099-OID. Prosper and LC are in alignment on their 1099-OIDs. Keep in mind that the term “Original Issue Discount” is a standard IRS term and there is no “discount” in play here. This number just records your total interest earned for 2013. The amount included on your 1099 is net of service fees and collection fees.

If you sold more than $10 worth of notes on Prosper’s trading platform then you will receive a FOLIOfn 1099-B. This form typically comes later than the regular Prosper 1099, it was available by late February this year.

FOLIOfn consolidates almost all the information the tax payer needs on the first page of their tax sheet. Information for the 1099-DIV, 1099-INT 1099-B, and 1099-MISC are concisely displayed, although most of those won’t apply to secondary market investors. The primary information comes on subsequent pages where FOLIOfn lays out proceeds from sales of notes and what gain and loss you have realized. There is still no consensus on how these numbers should be reported on your tax return so you should consult with a tax professional for guidance.

A Word About Deducting Losses
Many investors complain about the undesirable tax treatment for p2p lending. This is true to an extent which is why a non-taxable account, such as an IRA, can be preferable to many investors.

Here is the kicker about unfavorable tax treatment that I touched on earlier. You can only deduct $3,000 in capital losses, in our case these are called charge-offs, each year regardless of how much interest you made. You can however deduct more than $3,000 if you have capital gains elsewhere.

In my own situation, I had a total of almost $10,000 in charge offs in 2013 and I am able to deduct all these losses because I also sold some stocks last year which resulted in significant capital gains (more than $10,000). But if you have no capital gains elsewhere then you are stuck with this $3,000 limit. It is my understanding, though, that you can carry the losses in excess of $3,000 into future tax years.

Hope this information is helpful. Keep in mind, though, as I said at the beginning of this article that nothing here should be considered tax advice – you should always consult with a tax professional before taking action on anything in this article.


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