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全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯监管与政策

欧盟管理数字货币注册用户、记录比特币交易

欧洲委员会已经提交计划,打算建造数字货币用户的中央数据库。欧盟称提出该计划是为了防止恐怖分子的融资及洗钱。

委员会称,虚拟货币包括比特币的转移并未受到欧盟公共官方机构的监察,因此必须建立起对数字货币交易平台的监管框架。

计划书中称:“为此,相关机构须收集、处理、记录个人信息,有时须将这些信息共享给公共官方机构(如金融情报单位)或同组的私人机构。”

要建立数字货币新兴公司监管框架,很有可能要求所有欧盟数字货币新兴公司收集用户的个人敏感数据,关于这一点,委员会在4AMLD第65条中称,必须在2019年6月前建立起一个定期维护的虚拟货币注册用户中央数据库。

委员会提议:

合理提议包括,情况合适时,授权建立并维护包括虚拟货币注册用户的身份及钱包地址的中央数据库,还包括供虚拟货币用户使用的自我宣言表格。

核心问题

欧盟委员会计划为去中心化的数字货币用户建立一个中心化的数据库,这一极富野心的计划带来了两个核心问题:对个人数据的侵犯及其令人堪忧的网络安保

自2004年以来,欧洲政府机构、执法机构以及非盈利机构遭到了数千字的公共数据攻击。在这些攻击中,侵入公共记录数据的约有229起,暴露出欧洲政府机构信息技术系统的脆弱与落后。

欧盟及其网络安保单位长期参与暗网与比特币交易,但却提议建立一个包含数百万数字货币用户的个人隐私、敏感金融记录的中央数据库,其不和逻辑的理由是数字货币是绝大多数‘恐怖分子’的资金来源,并且是非法买卖中使用的货币。

或许这是主流媒体的错,其实现金一直以来都是在非法买卖及恐怖主义融资中更受青睐的手段,原因很简单:现金是完全匿名的,但数字货币不是。

以公共或共享账簿为基础的虚拟货币产生之初就是透明、去中心化的。因此,网络上任何人都能接触到金融交易的数据。欧洲警政署早在2016年就利用比特币网络的这一弱点追踪丝绸之路交易者。

欧盟委员会计划建立虚拟货币用户中心化数据库,如果是为了阻止非法买卖药品以及恐怖主义募资,那么把这套计划应用到现金使用者身上才更加合理,因为在非法药品买卖和恐怖主义募资中使用现金的更多。

The European Commission has submitted their plans to create a central database of digital currency users. The EU quotes the prevention of terrorist financing and money laundering for the reason behind it.

The Commission stated that virtual currency transfers, including Bitcoin, are not monitored or observed by public authorities within the EU and thus, a regulatory framework for digital currency platforms must be established.

"For that purpose, obliged entities need to collect, process and record personal data, and sometimes to share such data with public authorities (such as FIUs) or with private entities within the same group," a section of the proposal reads.

In relation to providing a regulatory framework for digital currency startups-which most likely will require all EU digital currency startups to collect private and sensitive information of their users-the EU Commission stated in Article 65 of 4AMLD that a regularly maintained central database of registered virtual currency users must be established by June 2019.

The Commission proposed:

"Appropriate proposals, including, where appropriate, with respect to virtual currencies, empowerments to set up and maintain a central database registering users' identities and wallet addresses accessible to FIUs, as well as self-declaration forms for the use of virtual currency users."

Core Problems

The EU Commission's ambitious plan to create a centralized database of decentralized digital currency users presents two core problems: violation of personal data and their disturbingly poor quality of cyber security.

European government agencies, law enforcement, and non-profit organizations have been targeted by thousands of public data attacks since 2004. Amongst those attacks, the number of publicly recorded data breaches is estimated at 229, exposing the vulnerable and outdated IT systems of Europe's government-backed agencies.

The European Union and its cyber security units, which have been long involved with the darknet and Bitcoin transactions are proposing to create a central database of personal, private, and sensitive financial records of millions of digital currency users with the illogical case that digital currency funds most of the 'terrorist' and illegal purchases in the world today.

Perhaps it is the fault of mainstream media, but cash has been the preferred method of purchasing illegal items and terrorism financing, for one simple reason: cash is completely anonymous, while digital currencies aren't.

Virtual currencies which are based on public or shared ledgers are built to be transparent and decentralized. Thus, anyone on the network can access the data of financial transactions. The EUROPOL used this disadvantage of the Bitcoin network to track down Silk Road traders earlier in 2016.

If the basis of the EU Commission's argument is to centralize virtual currencies to stop the illegal purchase of drugs and terrorist financing, it is more sensible for the Commission to execute the same plan on cash users, since there are more cases of drug purchases and money laundering with cash.


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