现实困难重重 印度货币数字化可能只是一场梦? - 互联网金融门户 未央网

最有看点的互联网金融门户

最有看点的互联网金融门户
国际资讯基于互联网平台的金融业务

现实困难重重 印度货币数字化可能只是一场梦?

国际资讯基于互联网平台的金融业务

现实困难重重 印度货币数字化可能只是一场梦?

印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪希望印度停止使用现金,完全实现货币数字化。因为他认为,无现金经济能够增加印度经济透明度,打击贪污腐败,推动印度国内生产总值发展。

然而,一项来自Omidyar Network与Dalberg Global Development Advisors的联合调查发现,其实印度并没有为数字金融(使用电子支付方式)做好准备。

举个例子,虽然数字金融被认为将引起印度下一代革命风潮,但5月18日发布的报告称“消费者接受这项技术的速度很慢”。Omidyar Network经理兼投资人Swati Aggarwal称:“我们发现数字技术渠道并没有自动向消费者转化。实际上印度许多人并不使用有数据流量的智能手机。”

到2017年6月印度智能手机用户人数有望超过4.5亿。但50%的人并没有开通数据服务。另外根据Omidyar数据,农村只有不到5%的成年人有智能手机。报告也指出,因为保守的社会习俗,有相当一部分人尤其是女性,仍然不能使用智能手机。

这份报告根据2016年10月-12月期间对印度5个邦30个地方384人的采访完成。 Aggarwal解释说,报告想要采访足够多的人,理解数字化觉醒中消费者行为。

这些发现可能会使那些支持无现金经济的政府、银行、电子钱包公司、创业公司担忧。根据咨询公司麦肯锡预测,到2025年数字金融预计将促使印度国内生产总值增加7000亿美元,创造2100万个工作岗位。但如果按照Omidyar-Dalberg的报告发展,要实现这份美好愿景可能还困难重重。

数字服务:简单为上

印度农村地区居民认为,使用数字服务和应用很难。他们不知道怎么办理手机或网络服务。报告称,他们“金融服务中有太多当地口语中没有的专业术语和内容,当地人无法理解。”

有些时候,用户甚至无法区别账户号码与PIN码,这让他们用某些需要账号的应用时不得不小心翼翼。比如“记入借方”(从账户取钱)、“计入贷方”(向账户存钱)这种术语就让农村用户困惑不已。

相比之下,印度农村人更喜欢当地的服务提供商,比如贷款代理商、自助团体、小型金融机构、合会、存款协会、黄金担保贷款和私人放贷人等,这些机构或个人已经建立了长期的信任,他们的服务也很舒适到位。

“黄金担保贷款的代理人讲话很有礼貌,还给我倒水喝。他非常有耐心地给我解释贷款过程。而且几分钟内我就拿到贷款了。”来自Karnataka村的家庭主妇Mangai在调查中这样说。

BHIM-Aadhaar平台与政府BHIM应用软件相连,不需要个人导航设备或手机,这可能是对这种问题的解决办法。任何有 Aadhaar卡的人在任意一家商业点通过指纹认证就可以开通BHIM。自BHIM在2016年12月推出到2017年3月来,无现金交易变得简单方便,现在BHIM已经下载量已达到1800万。

女性面临的挑战

报告发现,印度女性使用数字金融服务的人数极低。在印度,10个女性中只有不到5人有手机;使用手机上网功能的人中只有35%是女性。报告称,另一方面,对大多数印度人来说,智能手机是一种娱乐、社交方式,很多人害怕它会“产生不良影响,导致性骚扰或离婚”。

报告说:“不少男性和女性告诉我们,报纸文章、电视新闻都报道称女性使用社交媒体会导致外遇和离婚。”

印度男性通常不会给妻子、女儿、姐妹买智能手机。许多女性使用只能打电话、不能连接数据的手机。

比哈尔邦Masia Bigha村的一名老师告诉Omidyar:“不应该给女孩买智能手机。这不合适。谁知道她们会跟谁聊天?我不会给我女儿买手机。她还在上高中,现在应该先让她结婚。”

但报告显示,如果有专门针对消费管理或教育的软件,女性使用者会增加。

这样看来至今为止,让13亿印度人完全实现货币数字化还不过只是一个空想。

Narendra Modi wants Indians to stop using cash and go digital instead. A cashless economy is expected to increase transparency, clamp down on corruption, and boost the country’s GDP.

However, despite the brouhaha, Indians aren’t taking much to digital finance—use of electronic payments—a joint study by philanthropic investment firm Omidyar Network and Dalberg Global Development Advisors has found.

For one, although digital finance is said to be the next revolution in Asia’s third-largest economy, “adoption of this technology across consumer segments has been slow,” the study, released on May 18, says. “What we found was that access does not automatically translate to usage. Many people aren’t actually using smartphones with data,” Swati Aggarwal, director, investments, Omidyar Network, said.

India is expected to have over 450 million smartphone users by June 2017. But, some 50% of them would not subscribe to data plans. Besides, less than 5% of rural adults own smartphones, according to Omidyar. A significant segment, particularly women, still don’t use smartphones, often due to conservative social norms, it noted.

The study is based on interviews of 384 persons at 30 locations across five states in October-December 2016. The idea was to go beyond macro numbers and understand consumer behaviour in the wake of digitisation, explained Aggarwal.

These findings would worry the government, banks, e-wallets, and startups rooting for a cashless economy. Digital finance is estimated to add some $700 billion to India’s GDP by 2025 and create 21 million jobs, according to consulting firm McKinsey. But if the Omidyar-Dalberg study is anything to go by, the picture is far from rosy.

Keep it simple

Rural Indians find it difficult to use digital services and apps. They lack the confidence to transact using a phone or a website, Aggarwal explained. There’s “a lack of ability to understand financial services due to heavy usage of jargon and content not found in the local colloquial language,” the report said.

In some cases, users couldn’t even differentiate between an account number and a PIN number, making them wary of using apps that require these. Then there are terms like “debiting” (when money is withdrawn from the account) and “crediting” (when money is deposited) that confuse them.

Given these issues, rural Indians naturally prefer local service providers like loan agents, self-help groups, micro-finance institutions, chit funds, savings associations, loans against gold, and private moneylenders, with whom they have long-established trust and comfort levels.

“The gold loan agent speaks politely and offers me water. He patiently explains the loan process. Also, I get the loan within a few minutes,” Mangai, a homemaker in a Karnataka village, said during one of the interviews.

A platform like BHIM-Aadhaar, tied to the government’s BHIM app, could be a solution as it does not require personal navigation or owning a phone. Anyone with the Aadhaar card and thumb-print can access BHIM at a merchant’s location. From its launch in December 2016 to facilitate cashless transactions to March 2017, BHIM had got 18 million downloads.

Challenges for women

The use of digital finance services by women is particularly low, the study found. Fewer than five out of 10 women in India own a mobile phone; females also form just 35% of mobile internet usage. Even otherwise, to most Indians, a smartphone is just a mode of entertainment and social media, raising fears that it will be a “bad influence and lead to sexual harassment or broken marriages,” the report said.

“Multiple men and women told us that newspaper articles and television news reported that social media usage by women leads to extramarital affairs and divorce,” the report said.

Men often don’t buy their wives, daughters or sisters smartphones. Many of the women who do use such handsets don’t have data connections.

“Girls shouldn’t be given mobile phones. It is not appropriate. Who knows who will they talk to? I haven’t given a phone to my girl. She is in high school, now let her get married,” a teacher in the Masia Bigha village in Bihar, told Omidyar.

However, if there are specific apps for expense management or education, usage among females could increase, the study shows.

For now, though, 1.3 billion Indians going fully digital with their money is still in the realm of fantasy.


用微信扫描可以分享至好友和朋友圈

扫描二维码或搜索微信号“iweiyangx”
关注未央网官方微信公众号,获取互联网金融领域前沿资讯。

发表评论

发表评论

您的评论提交后会进行审核,审核通过的留言会展示在下方留言区域,请耐心等待。

评论

您的个人信息不会被公开,请放心填写! 标记为的是必填项

取消

吕林倩未央编辑团队

144
总文章数

TA还没写个人介绍。。。

“成也地推,败也地推”,线下3C分期消费前景难料?

刘旷 07-06

印度央行:消费者支付数据必须储存在印度境内

耿颖 05-31

印度数字借贷创企大举进军教育领域

常笑 05-29

印度加密货币交易所今夏前景不明

常笑 05-23

印度:金融科技市场重心向二三线城市转移

栀航 05-06

版权所有 © 清华大学五道口金融学院互联网金融实验室 | 京ICP备17044750号-1