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国际资讯监管与政策

印度央行计划加强金融科技监管

国际资讯监管与政策

印度央行计划加强金融科技监管

预计到2020年,印度金融科技(包括手机钱包、在线贷款、P2P借贷和在线零售投资等)市场规模将达到24亿美元。然而毕马威(KPMG)的最新数据也显示,2017年7月至9月这一季度,印度金融科技市场获得的风险资本投资下降至不到1亿美元,而2015年同期则为8亿美元。

金融科技公司具备巨大的发展前景,这些公司正在把更多的消费者纳入正规的银行渠道,促进了金融包容和经济增长,提高了行业效率,增加行业了透明度,增强了竞争力和金融系统的恢复能力。

为保证这种颠覆性、革命性的新型金融市场继续发展,印度央行计划将金融科技正式纳入监管行列。

在2017年12月发布的Trend And Progress Of Banking In India报告中,印度央行表示,"将金融科技纳入监管范畴,应该提供一个公平的竞争环境,同时鼓励金融创新。在此背景下,印度储备银行(简称RBI)正在制定相关政策,从而应对金融科技发展带来的监管挑战"。

RBI认为,印度金融科技领域的发展存在若干潜在风险,比如微观金融层面风险(信贷和流动性风险),网络安全和法律风险,以及信贷额增长的不可持续性风险。所以在2017年9月,印度银行业监管机构禁止了无节制发展的P2P借贷。虽然印度官方也出台了针对加密货币的警告声明,指明了加密货币对传统银行系统造成的巨大威胁,但还没有出台具有约束力的政策。

对于印度央行此番监管动态,大多数金融科技公司都表示欢迎。P2P借贷公司OMLP2P首席执行官Surendra Kumar Jalan表示,针对金融科技企业的资金监管有助于消除投资者和消费者的担忧,使得企业获得更高的信誉并且更具合法性。

尚未纳入监管范围的企业也正在考虑接受RBI监管,因为这将有助于他们的发展。 在线借贷公司CoinTribe的首席运营官Rohit Lohia表示,如果央行针对其业务发布监管规则,不仅不会限制其成长,反而能确保其以更加谨慎的方式进行发展。如果没有监管,那么发展将是暂时性的,最终必定会走向崩溃。

The disruptive and revolutionary technologies that shook the foundations of India’s traditional financial sector may soon run into a central bank check post.

“Bringing fintech under the regulatory ambit should provide a level playing field and encourage financial innovations. In this context, the Reserve Bank (of India, RBI) is working on framing an appropriate response to the regulatory challenges posed by developments in fintech in India,” the central bank said in its Trend And Progress Of Banking In India report, released in December.

The RBI believes fintech growth in India involves several potential risks. These include micro-financials such as credit and liquidity risk, cyber and legal risks, and unsustainable credit growth, among others. So, last September, the banking regulator ended the unchecked run of peer-to-peer lending. And while it has issued cautionary statements against cryptocurrencies, there are no binding regulations yet.

“While reforms have made the global banking system safer and more resilient and macroprudential policies have reduced vulnerabilities and supported traditional policies, risks remain. In particular, greater acceptance of cryptocurrencies is becoming a formidable risk to the traditional banking system,” the report said.

India’s fintech market, encompassing everything from mobile wallets and online loans to peer-to-peer lending and online retail investments, is expected to be worth $2.4 billion by 2020. However, things have been a bit tepid lately. For instance, venture capital investments in the sector declined to less than $100 million in the July-September 2017 quarter, compared to $800 million during the same period in 2015, according to consultancy firm KPMG.

Good move

Fintech companies welcome RBI regulation.

“The firms in the fintech sector deal with people’s money, and, therefore, the regulator wants to be slightly conservative and put certain strict caps,” said Surendra Kumar Jalan, CEO of OMLP2P, a peer-to-peer lending firm. “It also helps allay investors’ and consumers’ fears and gives them comfort that these are not some fly-by-night operators. Instead, it gives more credibility and legitimacy to the business.”

The RBI has acknowledged that agile fintech players will eat into the business share and profitability of incumbent banks. In fact, this has already begun. And instead of competing with them, traditional banks are now waking up to new categories of payments and settlements and partnering with these startups.

Meanwhile, the RBI’s idea is to create a level playing field rather than just protect the older players, said Vivek Belgavi, who heads financial services technology at PwC India. “In past instances also, we have seen that the RBI has always taken a measured approach to ensure that nobody gets a free run.”

Firms not yet covered by it are also looking to come under the RBI’s purview, which would help them grow. “If the central bank issues rules around our businesses, it will not stall growth. Instead it will ensure that we grow in a prudent way and not in a berserk manner,” Rohit Lohia, COO of CoinTribe, an online lending firm, told Quartz. “If there are no checks, then growth will be short-lived and things will ultimately collapse.”

The RBI has recognised the massive potential technology firms offer. These startups are bringing more consumers into the formal banking channel, boosting financial inclusion and economic growth. They have also improved efficiency, transparency, competition, and resilience, the report said.

Whatever the pros, the regulator is keen to ensure the cons don’t get away easily.


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