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打击偷税漏税,日本政府盯上了比特币投资数据

日本《朝日新闻》报道称,日本税务部门已经率先收集到了部分信息,用于判断比特币投资者们是否有逃税漏税,若发现逃税漏税行为,违法者将面临指控、罚款等处罚。日本的纳税申报季起始于每年的2月份。

2017年日本的一项法律正式生效,承认虚拟货币可以用来购买商品和服务。这进一步助燃了比特币的热度,其他各种虚拟货币的价格也随之呈现指数型飞涨。作为数字货币中拥有最高市值的当之无愧“老大哥”,比特币去年1月的时候还只有10万日元(合890美元),到了12月竟然一度触及200万日元。市值排第二的瑞波币(Ripple)价格较2017年初也翻了不止200倍。

不过,虚拟货币交易都是通过互联网私营交易所操作完成,并不经由传统金融机构之手。这就意味着传统的交易信息收集方法并不适用。

由于担忧虚拟货币投资者可能在赚取了高额利得后逃税漏税,日本的税务部门从2017年夏季起就开始要求交易所运营者披露交易记录,供税务官员查阅。

有部分交易所遵守了这一要求。日本国税厅(National Tax Agency)东京、大阪办公室成立的特别小组已经对收集上来的数据进行了分析,关于资产的信息也被编制进数据库中。这些数据将用于核对今年2月、3月缴纳上来的2017年纳税申报。若申报的纳税额过少,税收部门将约谈部分投资者,判断是否需要针对其提出逃税指控或是追加罚款。

很多投资者对于税务部门发布报税相关信息时的低效率非常不满。原则上来讲,如果一位公民通过出售或兑换虚拟货币得到了20万日元以上的获利,就需要上交纳税申报单。不过,日本国税厅直到12月份才姗姗来迟地发布了纳税计算方法。

距离税务申报季的到来只剩一个月,一些投资者因此不得不草草审视交易记录,重新以权威方法计算虚拟货币的交易利得。

日本税务部门还称,有必要施加额外措施来惩罚那些通过国外交易所来进行复杂交易、以此达到钻漏洞目的的投资者。

据了解,为了联手打击跨国避税行为,超过100个国家的税务局都会在今年开设一个新系统,互换关于金融机构账户的信息。在新系统之下,虚拟货币交易所运营商或将必须披露交易记录,类似于黄金交易员的义务。

 

Tax authorities for the first time have obtained information for the potentially complicated task of determining if bitcoin investors, who made millions if not billions of yen last year, are evading taxes.

The move comes ahead of the start of tax reporting season in February, and investors of the virtual currency are not happy about it.

A law went into effect in Japan in 2017 recognizing virtual currency as a form of payment for goods and services. That has fueled the popularity of bitcoins, and prices have exploded for various types of virtual currency.

Bitcoin, which has the largest market capitalization of any digital currency, was priced at about 100,000 yen ($890) in January, but by December, the price had soared to more than 2 million yen.

The price of the Ripple currency, which has the second largest market capitalization, jumped more than 200-fold from the price at the start of 2017.

However, virtual currency transactions are completed over the Internet by private-sector exchange operators without going through traditional financial institutions. That means ordinary methods for gathering information about those transactions are insufficient.

Concerned that virtual currency investors could dodge taxes on their huge gains, tax authorities from around summer 2017 began asking exchange operators to let them view their transaction records.

Some operators have agreed to cooperate, and the data obtained have been analyzed mainly by special teams set up in the Tokyo and Osaka offices of the National Tax Agency. Information about assets has been compiled in databases.

That data will be used to check tax returns for 2017 that will be submitted in February and March. If the reported income appears unusually small, tax authorities plan to question the individual to determine if tax evasion charges are warranted or if tax penalties should be imposed.

Some investors have criticized the slow manner in which tax authorities have released information related to tax reporting.

In principle, anyone who records a profit exceeding 200,000 yen in the value of a virtual currency by selling it or exchanging it for another currency is required to file a tax return.

However, the National Tax Agency only announced in December the calculations for determining that income.

With tax reporting season only about a month away, some investors were forced to review their transaction records and recalculate their income from virtual currency transactions.

Tax authorities have also cited the need for additional measures to deal with investors who exploit loopholes by conducting complicated transactions involving several virtual currency exchanges operating abroad.

Tax authorities in more than 100 nations and regions, including Japan, will start a new system this year to exchange information on financial institution accounts.

Proposals will likely be made to cover virtual currency transactions under the new system. Virtual currency exchange operators could be requested to submit transaction records much in the same way as traders of gold bullion are asked to do now.


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