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美国:区块链数据和智能合约未来将具备法律效力

佛罗里达的一位立法者已经已经提交了一项法案,如果获得通过,未来区块链数据和智能合约在该州将具备法律效力。

《众议院法案1357》引入了多项规定,比如将区块链账本和智能合约视为具有法律约束力的数据存储方法——前提是这些措施不违反任何现行法律或条例。

值得注意的是,这项法案表示,“通过区块链技术保护的记录或合约是一种电子表格和一种电子记录”,并且确定了通过区块链记录的签名也可作为有效的电子签字。

该法案概述说,如果一个人使用一种区块链来保护本州或外来商业企业,那么这不会影响到所有权。换句话说,如果某人使用一种区块链账本来存储信息,该法案将在法律上承认此人对该信息的权利。

同时,该法案表示:

“区块链智能合约不得单方面被剥夺法律效力或可执行性,原因有二:(1)合约中使用了一种电子记录;(2)合约中保护了一种智能合约条款。”

如果被签署成为法律,这项法案将使佛罗里达成为最新认可区块链记录和智能合约的美国州。去年,亚利桑那州通过了一项类似的措施,同样确认区块链记录为电子记录,并且给予了智能合约法律效力。

A lawmaker in Florida has introduced a bill that, if passed, would create a legal foundation for blockchain data and smart contracts in the U.S. state.

House Bill 1357 introduces multiple stipulations that blockchain ledgers and smart contracts be treated as legally-binding methods of data storage – provided that such measures do not break any pre-existing laws or regulations.

Notably, the bill states that a "record or contract that is secured through blockchain technology is in an electronic form and is an electronic record," and confirms that a signature recorded through a blockchain also qualifies as a valid electronic signature.

As a result of these qualifications, the bill outlines that, if a person uses a blockchain to secure interstate or foreign commercial ventures, it would not impact ownership rights. In other words, if someone used a blockchain ledger to store information, the bill would legally recognize that person's rights to that information.

Similarly, the bill states:

"A contract may not be denied legal effect or enforceability solely because: 1. An electronic record was used in the formation of the contract [and] 2. The contract contains a smart contract term."

If signed into law, the bill would make Florida the latest state to recognize blockchain records and smart contracts. Last year, Arizona passed a similar measure, with identical notes on confirming blockchain records as electronic records, as well as giving smart contracts legal force.

A slightly different bill in Vermont, when passed in 2016, allowed for the use of blockchain-based data as evidence in court.


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