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印尼:多家机构试水“银行+创企”的金融合作新模式

与银行相比,金融科技创业公司通常对新趋势反应更迅速、更敢于尝试新技术和新流程、运营开支也更低廉。然而,在如何应对监管,如何获得运营所需许可证等反面,传统银行显然更具经验和优势。此外,银行还拥有庞大的客户基础、完善的基础设施以及丰富的资源。

目前,印尼共有超过100家银行,但大多数银行对日新月异的技术环境反应迟缓。因此印尼的银行业从业人员认为,银行与创业公司合作才是解决金融普惠等问题的最佳方式。

据悉,目前一些印尼大银行已经与创业公司联手合作了不少项目。这些合作包括孵化计划、合作项目、资金支持。大部分合作都开始于近一两年,现在对成果发表评论还为时过早。

以下是四家印尼银行与金融科技公司的合作项目简介。

曼迪利银行

印尼最大国有银行曼迪利银行为创业公司提供了最全面的项目。

2016年初,曼迪利成为印尼首家推出专门金融科技风投基金的银行。这个名叫曼迪利资本 (MCI)的基金总额为3700万美元,已经资助了如信用卡读卡器创业公司Cashlez、小额贷款公司Amartha及终端销售软件Moka公司等多家金融科技创企。

此外,曼迪利资本还与印尼国有电信公司Telkom共同运营曼迪利企业孵化器,帮助金融科技创业公司适应行业环境。该银行还定期举办Finspire、Hackathon系列等金融科技活动。而且,曼迪利资本还开放了其电子货币系统的API供初创公司进行实验。

印尼中亚银行(BCA)

BCA是印尼最大的私有银行。2017年初,该公司启动了风险基金--中央资金创投(CCV)。最初基金资金约为1500万美元。CCV还没有正式开始投资,不过也有消息称目前该基金已经参与了贷款平台KlikACC的融资。

BCA提供了供开发人员使用的API网站。

印尼合作社银行

去年3月,面向中小企业、印尼中产阶级的银行合作社银行启动了名为BnV Labs的创业孵化器。该项目的创业公司可以使用BnV Labs合作伙伴Kibar的办公空间。参与者还可以获得导师指导,进入银行业生态系统。

印尼人民银行(BRI)

专注小企业的BRI没有设立自己的投资机构,而是收购了风险投资公司Bahana Artha Ventura公司35%的股份,并表示将通过这一方式为金融科技创业公司融资。该银行现在还没有宣布任何投资。

创业公司和银行高管在孵化计划和合作项目中相互学习,但双方在合作推出共赢的产品时,还是无法解决真正合作中产生的问题。

印尼金融科技协会发言人Ajisatria Suleiman认为其中一个例子就是P2P借贷的第三方托管或现金管理产品。

银行与创业公司建立有意义互动的另一种方式是开放API访问数据。但现实是双方第一次会面后,金融科技创业公司往往十分失望,而银行虽然与创业公司进行了有意义的合作,业绩仍然下滑。

金融科技公司的创始人说,现在虽然能得到引荐介绍,也安排了不少洽谈,但由于多种原因,后续进程往往推进缓慢。银行工作迟缓,导致合作花费的时间变长。其他常见的缓慢原因还有对合规问题及其他风险的担心。一些创始人推测的原因还有,金融科技创业公司用户基数仍然相对较小,银行与创业公司合作时看不到商业案例。

为了应对这一困境,印尼央行在2016年年底设立了金融技术办公室,金融科技创业公司可以就监管规定提出建议与质疑,简化沟通程序。

Fintech startups have some key advantages over banks: they can move fast and react to trends, experiment with new technologies and processes, and work on small budgets.Banks, on the other hand, know how to navigate regulations and obtain licenses required to operate in the industry. They have a large client base and access to infrastructure and resources.

In Indonesia, banks have used this argument to suggest that collaboration between banks and startups is the best way forward to solve pressing problems such financial inclusion. Some of Indonesia’s large banks have programs through which they interact with startups.

These include incubation programs, events, and funding. Most of these have only started in the last one or two years, so it’s too early to comment on outcomes. Indonesia has over 100 banks, targeting different segments and needs, most of them have been slow to react to the changing technology landscape.

Incubation programs and events where startups and bank executives can learn from each other also don’t solve the problem of true collaboration, where banks and startups work together on products that are beneficial to both of them.

One example is escrow or cash management products for p2p lending, suggests Ajisatria Suleiman, a spokesperson for the Indonesian Fintech Association.

Another way banks can create meaningful interaction with startups is providing access to data through open APIs. In practice, fintech startups lament, banks are still falling short when it comes to meaningful collaboration with startups. After first meetings,

While it’s become easier to get introductions and arrange meetings, fintech founders say follow-up tends to be slow for multiple reasons. Banks are generally slow-moving, which means processes just take longer. Other common reasons for delays are fear of compliance issues and other risks. Some founders speculate that banks don’t see a business case in working with fintech startups whose user base is still relatively small.

On a more positive note, the Indonesian Central Bank has setup a Fintech Officer towards the end of 2016 to simplify communication with fintech startups where they can advise and query about regulations.

Here’s a look at what banks have done to connect with fintech startups in Indonesia.

Bank Mandiri

Indonesia’s largest state-owned bank offers the most comprehensive program for startups.

In early 2016, Mandiri became the first local bank to launch a dedicated fintech venture fund, Mandiri Capital (MCI), with a US$37 million budget. It has financed startups like card reader startup Cashlez, micro-lender Amartha, and point-of-sales software Moka.

Mandiri Capital together with state-owned telco Telkom also runs the Mandiri Business Incubator to help fintech startups find their feet. The bank also hosts regular fintech events such as Finspire and a Hackathon series. It has opened the API to its e-money system Mandiri E-Cash for startups to experiment with.

Bank Central Asia

BCA is the country’s largest private bank. It launched its venture fund, Central Capital Ventura (CCV) in early 2017. The initial fund sits at about US$15 million. CCV hasn’t made its investments official yet, but is said to have participated in the funding of lending platform KlikACC.

BCA has a website with several APIs for developers to tap into.

Bank Bukopin

Bank Bukopin, a which targets SMEs and Indonesia’s middle segment, launched startup incubator called BnV Labs in March last year. Startups in the program can use office space at  BnV Lab’s partner co-working space, Kibar. Participants get mentorship and can get access to the bank’s ecosystem.

Bank Rakyat Indonesia

Instead of setting up its own investment arm, Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI), which caters to small scale entrepreneurs, acquired a 35% stake in a venture capital firm called Bahana Artha Ventura and says it will finance fintech startups through this vehicle. It hasn’t announced any investments yet.


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