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区块链国际资讯

区块链热潮蔓延全球,各国政府竞相发展官方数字法币

区块链国际资讯

区块链热潮蔓延全球,各国政府竞相发展官方数字法币

各国政府目前都在积极开发国际清算银行所谓的“中央银行加密货币”,英国《金融时报》的伊莎贝拉·卡明斯卡将其称为 “Crypto Fiat”,这是一种由政府发行的允许人们直接存在中央银行里的数字货币。

调查表明,这种各国政府竞相开发官方加密货币的趋势将影响未来几十年全球货币体系的发展。

委内瑞拉

去年秋天,委内瑞拉总统尼古拉斯·马杜罗宣布推出石油币(Petro),这是一种由该国石油储备支持的加密货币。今年2月20日,石油币预售开始,马杜罗宣称在第一天就募集了七亿三千五百万美元和十七万份订单,同时几家委内维拉公司被强令接受石油币付款。

虽然早期有传言称石油币将是一种建立在以太坊平台上的ERC-20代币,但政府最终决定使用新经币平台。

马杜罗在国会的反对党宣称石油币是非法的,美国财政部警告投资者不要与石油币打交道,否则将违反国际社会对该国的经济制裁。美国参议员们暗示将采取行动“防止马杜罗政权公然逃避美国制裁”。

理论上说,石油币是由该国的石油储备支撑的。实际上,它只能由玻利瓦尔币(委内维拉官方货币)基于石油价格来赎回。正如以太坊创始人V神所说,玻利瓦尔汇率被操纵的风险将使得此种币变得非常脆弱。

俄罗斯

俄罗斯总统普京已经下令发行一种国家加密货币来避免国际金融制裁。其今年1月底向议会提交了一份提案,标志着发行“加密卢布”的重要一步,这种加密货币将与卢布挂钩,最新的报告表明,加密卢布将于2019年中推出。

中国

中国人民银行(PBOC)首席研究员姚前肯定了央行发展加密货币的努力,他认为央行发行的数字货币可以“降低交易费用,更好的向农村地区提供金融服务并且提高中央货币政策的效率”。

中国央行副行长表示:“中国官方的数字货币将坚持集中管理的模式,旨在取代M0(流通中现金)而不是M1(侠义货币供应量,活期存款)或M2(广义货币供应量,活期定期存款之和),对将智能合约纳入央行的数字货币我们应保持审慎的态度。”

土耳其

一位土耳其议员最近起草了一份报告,提议创建由国家支持的“土耳其币”,目标是对资产支持的证券数字化,包含财富基金中的大型公共资产,如土耳其航空公司,伊斯坦布尔证券交易所,博塔斯天然气公司,土耳其电信,土耳其共和国农业银行和国家彩票。

伊朗

伊朗信息和通讯技术部长已经确认了由国家邮政银行开发国家加密货币的计划。

马绍尔群岛

马绍尔群岛计划发行“Sovereign” (SOV)作为官方法定货币,SOV要求用户进行身份认证,国家议会投票通过了这项计划,他们希望这将有助于“增加地方预算”。

该国已经和以色列初创公司Neema合作开发这种货币,与其他国家不同,他们至少已经有了具体的实施计划。

英国

尽管英国央行(BOE)一直在对加密货币进行研究,但他们担心这将对英国整个金融体系造成潜在影响,停止了开发这种由国家支持的加密货币。

如果央行推出自己的加密货币,他们担心消费者会放弃商业银行账户,转用央行的加密货币来购买商品和服务。

英国央行补充说,他们担心人们从商业银行大量提款,转而使用英格兰银行的加密货币,路边的银行将没有足够的现金付给储户,从而引起经济动荡。

瑞典

即将成为一个完全没有现金的经济体的瑞典也在进行加密货币研究。据悉,瑞典央行已经启动了一个项目来调查瑞典是否需要发行官方加密货币 “e-Krona”.

瑞典央行调查的原因之一是,在很长的一段时间里,瑞典的现金使用量一直在稳步下降。央行的法定任务是向民众提供纸币和硬币,然而家庭中的现金使用量越来越少,民间机构也在减少公众对现金的获取和使用。这意味着法币的获取渠道和今后的支付方式最终将掌握在民间机构手中。

瑞典央行2018年“e-Krona”行动计划指出,除了提供现金的义务外,这个项目的出发点是瑞典央行在新的数字环境下,维持物价的稳定和促进安全高效的支付系统。

加拿大

加拿大银行进行了“CAD币”的实验,这是对分布式账本技术的另一种探索。然而,加拿大银行高级副行长卡罗琳·威尔金斯表示,该行离发行供公共使用的加密货币还“非常遥远”。

从技术上讲,一枚CAD币就是一张存款单,它可以允许持有人从央行提款。但这意味着CAD币只是另一种形式的法币。与存放在联邦储备银行主账户中的央行储备金不同,CAD币只是以分布式账本的形式存放在银行的“钱包”里,使用CAD币从一家银行往另一家转账不会影响到央行的资产负债表。只有在赎回的阶段,把CAD币换回法币时,央行的储备金才会发生变化。

加拿大皇家银行 (RBC) 资本市场小组发布了一份报告,认为加密货币可能代表着一个数万亿美元的市场。加拿大皇家银行是与加拿大银行合作开展CAD币项目的六家私人银行之一。

瑞士

正如《经济学人》最近的一篇文章所描述的,瑞士正在“热情拥抱”数字货币以及加密货币领域的企业家。

瑞士证券交易所主席告诉《金融时报》,他不喜欢现金并且希望瑞士央行尽快发行自己的加密货币“e-franc ”,然而瑞士国家银行(SNB)表示,他们认为没有必要采取这种行动。

一家由瑞士金融专家组成的智囊团发布了一项报告,概述了他们对与瑞士法郎挂钩的“Crypto Franc”币的构想。

美国

上年9月,《华盛顿邮报》的一名专栏作家发表文章称,美国的“联邦币”将会比比特币更伟大。

“如果美联储发行自己的加密货币,总有一天,它会成为比特币及其他加密货币的主要竞争对手,并且波动性会小的多。事实上,目前尚不清楚美联储是否希望这种竞争,但美联储有能力约束当前的加密货币市场。所以,当心了,比特币。”

美联储的官方言论表明,目前暂时不会看到“联邦币”的出现,去年11月,联邦储备银行旧金山分行行长威廉姆斯(John Williams)表示联邦尚没有发行数字货币的计划。美联邦主席鲍威尔(Jerome Powell)也在去年的一次演讲中就这个问题发表了类似的观点。

然而,鉴于世界上其他国家的行动,看起来决策者们都在幕后讨论发行官方加密货币的可行性。一位政府高级官员的言论表明了他们对加密货币的价值和潜在分裂性的深刻理解。

前联邦保险公司主席希拉贝尔(Sheila Bair)表示她并不担心人们对加密货币的狂热,同时也认为政府没必要去禁止。

今年早些时候,联邦储备银行圣路易斯分行发表一篇“加密货币世界简介”,承认比特币相对其他货币形式的一些优势。

然而,比特币并不是唯一没有内在价值的货币。国家垄断货币,如美元、欧元、瑞士法郎也没有内在价值,他们是由政府法令创建的法币,国家垄断货币的历史可以说是价格剧烈波动和失败的历史。这也是为什么去中心化货币受现有货币体系所欢迎。可以说,在某些方面,比特币协议比某些现有的法币协议更强大。唯有时间可以证明。—阿列克·桑德贝伦森和法比安·朔伊尔

在美国参议院银行、住房和城市事务委员会最近的一次听证会上,参议员马克华纳(Mark Warner)表示,加密货币可以像手机一样具有变革性。美国商品期货委员会主席在此次听证会上作证。

美商品期货委员会主席克里斯托弗·詹卡洛则表示:“我们的金融市场正在进入一个新的数字时代,正如我们见证了互联网的发展,我们不能把妖怪重新收回到瓶子里(指区块链技术)。虚拟货币标志着我们看待支付方式、传统金融流程以及参与经济活动方式的根本性转变。选择忽视这些事态发展并不会让它们消失,同样这也不是一种负责任的监管态度。这些资产的演变,它们的波动性,以及它们吸引了全球千禧一代的广泛兴趣,值得被我们密切关注。”

詹卡洛的言论为为他赢得了“加密爸爸”的绰号,以及推特上面大量的比特币粉丝。

如果这个世界上最大的经济和军事强国决定发行自己的加密货币的话,它将对本国公民和世界经济产生重大影响。

Governments across the world are researching and developing what the Bank for International Settlements calls central bank cryptocurrencies, and Izabella Kaminska of the Financial Times refers to as “Crypto Fiat”. This form of government-issued digital currency allows citizens to hold deposits directly with central banks.

A survey of recent developments suggests that the rise of cryptofiat is a trend that should be closely monitored by anyone concerned with how the global monetary system might evolve over the coming decades.

Venezuela

Last fall, Venezuelan president Nicolas Maduro announced plans to launch the Petro, a cryptocurrency backed by the nation’s oil reserves. The pre-sale for the Petro went live on February 20th. Maduro claims that over $735 million was raised on the first day, and that over 171,000 purchase orders have been received so far. Several Venezuelan companies have been ordered to accept payments in the Petro.

While early rumors suggested the currency would be built on Ethereum’s blockchain as an ERC-20 token, the government ultimately decided to use the NEM platform instead as described in the Whitepaper.

Maduro’s opposition in Congress has declared the Petro to be illegal. The U.S. Treasury has warned investors against dealing with the Petro, stating that it likely violates sanctions against the country. Senators have hinted at potential action “to prevent the Maduro regime from brazenly evading US sanctions”.

In theory, the Petro is backed by oil. In reality, it can only be redeemed for Bolivars based on the price of oil. As Vitalik Buterin points out, this leaves the currency vulnerable to the risk of total or partial default through manipulation of the Bolivar’s exchange rate.

Venezuelan and Russian officials have been discussing the role that the Petro could play in strengthening economic and financial cooperation between the two countries. Maduro has also announced plans for a second cryptocurrency, “Petro Gold”, backed by the nation’s gold reserves.

Activision/Blizzard co-founder Howard Marks wonders “is cryptocurrency technology now in the service of political warfare”?

Russia

Russian President Vladimir Putin has ordered the issue of a national cryptocurrency as a means for circumventing international sanctions. A draft bill was submitted to the Russian parliament in late January, marking a concrete step towards the launch of the “Cryptoruble”, which will be pegged to the Ruble. The latest reports suggest that the Cryptoruble is set to be launched in mid-2019.

China

Yao Qian, lead researcher at the People’s Bank of China (PBOC), discussed the banks efforts to develop a national cryptocurrency. Qian believes central bank-issued digital currency can “ bring down transaction costs, extend financial services to rural areas and increase the efficiency of monetary policies”.

PBOC’s Deputy Governor stated: “China’s official digital currency will adhere to centralized administration model. Aiming to replace M0 rather than M1 or M2. A prudential attitude should be held on incorporating smart contracts into central bank’s digital currency”.

Turkey

A Turkish lawmaker recently drafted a report proposing a state-backed “Turkcoin”. The coin would aim to tokenize asset-backed securities. “Large public assets in the Wealth Fund such as Turkish Airlines, the Istanbul Stock Exchange, the gas company Botas, Turk Telekom, Ziraat Bank and the National Lottery would serve, in a sense, as its “insurance policy”.

Iran

Iran’s Minister of Information and Communications Technology has confirmed plans for a national cryptocurrency to be developed by the state-run Post Bank.

The Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands plans to release a cryptocurrency, the “Sovereign” (SOV), to serve as official legal tender. The SOV will require users to identify themselves, and the country’s parliament has voted to proceed with the plan which they hope will help “bolster local budgets”.

The country has partnered with Israeli startup Neema to develop the currency. In contrast with other countries that have concrete plans for cryptofiat, the Marshall Islands is a close ally of the United States.

The United Kingdom

While the Bank of England (BOE) has been conducting extensive research into digital currencies, they have halted plans to release a state-backed cryptocurrency, citing fears about potential impact on the wider financial system.

If the central bank launched a digital currency of its own, it worried consumers would stop using commercial bank accounts and, instead, have a bank account with the Bank of England, and choose to use digital technology to purchase goods and services over paper money.

The central bank added it feared if there were a flurry of withdrawals from commercial banks in favour of using the Bank of England’s crypto-currency, highstreet banks would not have the cash to pay all depositors, causing turbulence in the economy.—David Thorpe, Financial Times

Sweden

Sweden, on the verge of becoming a completely cashless economy, is also conducting research on digital currency. Sweden’s central bank, the Riksbank, has started a project to examine whether or not Sweden needs to issue an “e-Krona”.

One reason why the Riksbank wants to investigate the possibility of introducing an e-krona is that the use of cash in Sweden has been declining steadily over a long period of time. At the same time, the Riksbank has the statutory task of providing Sweden with banknotes and coins, households are using cash less and less and the private sector is reducing the general public’s access to, and the usability of, notes and coins.

This means that ultimately, private agents may determine the access to central bank money and payment methods. In addition to the Riksbank’s obligation to supply cash, the starting point for this project is the Riksbank’s task of maintaining price stability and promoting a safe and efficient payment system in a new digital environment.—The Riksbank’s e-krona project Action plan for 2018

Canada

The Bank of Canada has conducted experiments with “CAD-coin” as part of “Project Jasper”, an exploration of Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) based wholesale payment systems. However, Bank of Canada senior deputy governor Carolyn Wilkins stated the bank was “ very far off” from issuing a digital currency for public use.

Technically, a CAD-coin is a deposit receipt; it gives the holder a transferable claim on its value in central bank money. But for all intents and purposes, this means CAD-coin is, itself, a form of central bank money. However, unlike central bank reserves, which are held in banks’ master accounts at federal reserve banks, CAD-coin holdings are held in banks’ “wallets” within the distributed ledger. Payments from one bank to another that are made using CAD-coin do not impact the central bank balance sheet. It is only during the redemption phase, when banks redeem CAD-coin for central bank money, that a redistribution of central bank reserves occurs.—CAD-coin versus Fedcoin

The Royal Bank of Canada’s (RBC) capital markets team released a report that argues cryptocurrency may represent a multi-trillion dollar market. The RBC is one of six private banks working with the Bank of Canada on Project Jasper.

Switzerland

As described in a recent piece from The Economist, Switzerland is enthusiastically embracing digital currencies and crypto-entrepreneurs.

A banking centre seeks to reinvent itself

ON A clear day, sunset over Lake Zug is magnificent. Snow-dusted mountains cut through the orange glow above and are…www.economist.com

The Chairman of the SIX group that runs the Swiss Stock Exchange told The Financial Times that he doesn’t like cash and would like to see the central bank issue an “e-franc ”. The Swiss National Bank (SNB) has stated they don’t see any need for such a move.

A think tank of Swiss financial professionals issued a report outlining their vision of a “Crypto Franc” pegged to the Swiss Franc.

The United States

Last December, the author of a Washington Post Op-Ed argued that a (non-existent) “Fedcoin” is bigger than Bitcoin.

“If the Federal Reserve does adopt its own cryptocurrency someday, it will become a major—and far less volatile—competitor to bitcoin and other digital currencies. In fact, it’s not clear whether fedcoin would want that competition, and the Fed is in a position to impose a regulatory environment that tilts the playing field. So watch out, bitcoin.”

Comments made by officials at the Federal Reserve indicate we won’t be seeing a Fedcoin anytime in the near future. Last November, San Francisco Federal Reserve Bank President John Williams said the Fed has no plans to issue a digital currency. Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell gave his thoughts on the topic in a speech last year.

Indeed, I would expect private-sector systems to be more forward leaning than central banks in providing new features to the public through faster payments systems as they compete to attract retail customers. A central bank issued digital currency would compete with these and other innovative private-sector products and may stifle innovation over the long run.—Jerome Powell

However, given the activity of other governments across the globe, it seems likely the concept is being discussed among policy makers behind the scenes. Comments made by high-ranking U.S. Government officials reflect a deep understanding of the value and disruptive potential of cryptocurrencies.

Former FDIC chair Sheila Bair explains why she isn’t worried about the mania surrounding cryptocurrencies and sees no need to ban them.

“ I don’t think we should ban [Bitcoin]— the green bills in your pocket don’t have an intrinsic value, either. The value is based on what others think is its value. That’s true of any currency…Regulation should be focused on good disclosure, education, warding off fraud, and making sure it is not used for illicit activities. Let the market figure out what it’s worth..that is what it is doing now”—Sheila Bair

The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis published A Short Introduction to the World of Cryptocurrencies earlier this year that acknowledges some of Bitcoin’s advantages over other forms of currency.

However, Bitcoin is not the only currency that has no intrinsic value. State monopoly currencies, such as the U.S. dollar, the euro, and the Swiss franc, have no intrinsic value either. They are fiat currencies created by government decree. The history of state monopoly currencies is a history of wild price swings and failures. This is why decentralized cryptocurrencies are a welcome addition to the existing currency system…It could be argued that, in some ways, the Bitcoin protocol is more robust than many of the existing fiat currency protocols. Only time will tell.—Aleksander Berentsen and Fabian Schr

At a recent hearing of the U.S. Senate Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee, Senator Mark Warner stated that cryptocurrencies could be as transformational as cellphones. CFTC Chairman J. Christopher Giancarlo testified at the hearing.

We are entering a new digital era in world –financial markets. As we saw with the development of the Internet, we cannot put the technology genie back in the bottle. Virtual currencies mark a paradigm shift in how we think about payments, traditional financial processes, and engaging in economic activity. Ignoring these developments will not make them go away, nor is it a responsible regulatory response. The evolution of these assets, their volatility, and the interest they attract from a rising global millennial population demand serious examination—Christopher Giancarlo

CFTC Chairman Giancarlo: "We owe it this new generation to respect their enthusiasm about virtual currencies with a thoughtful and balanced response, not a dismissive one." https://t.co/0v4M5gExfc

—@coincenter

Giancarlo’s comments have earned him the nickname “Cryptodad”, and a large following of Bitcoin enthusiasts on Twitter.

If and when the world’s largest economic and military superpower decides to issue its own form of digital currency, it will have a significant impact on the its citizens and the global economy.

 


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