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为什么不该对加密货币交易征税?

区块链国际资讯

为什么不该对加密货币交易征税?

去年,美国国会通过立法,宣布对加密货币交易征税。决策正确与否还有待商榷。

加密货币是一种新型贸易模式,变化浮动较大,股票与贵金属的征税方式可能并不适用于加密货币交易。

为什么这么说?

1. 货币骗局遍地

旁氏骗局Bitconnect市值曾达28亿美元,却在一夜间消失无踪。美国的税收政策对长期股票投资有利(比如持有苹果公司的股票),但要是换了不大可靠,结果很可能会不尽人意。

2. 新区块链技术层出不穷

区块链技术发展步履迅猛,我们需要给予投资者足够的灵活度,让他们在各种技术之间进行选择。这才是超级富翁的成功之法,我们并不愿这样的重量级人物都集聚在亚洲。

3. 加密交易不易追踪

如今,市场中出现了数十家交易所与专属钱包服务平台,而且每天都有新产品不断上线。与静止的银行账户不同,为了保证账户安全,加密货币交易者需要主动调整变换钱包地址。放弃这种做法很难,有些交易者宁愿冒险也不愿折腾。

4. 美国需要建立更多交易所

若在亚洲就能完成交易,为什么要舍近求远奔赴美国交交易所呢?在交易量上,币安、火币、OKEx 等亚洲交易所压制了GDAX 、Bittrex 等美交所。如CoinSuper等许多新兴有前途的市场参与者也均位于亚洲。交易所利润丰厚,这些税金才是我们应争取的。

5. 新型交易所结构导致税务机关“失能”

在今年于纽约举行的加密货币之战集会上,去中心化交易趋势成为公认共识。即便某个加密货币交易所来自亚洲,美国的税务机关一样可以获取到其交易数据。而如果这个交易所采用的是去中心化的结构,那么税务机关可能就无从下手了。也就是说,如果不能对一个交易所进行审计,那么税收也就更不可能了。

6. 未来将不会留有纸质记录

如今在公共区块链上我们可追踪绝大部分区块链动向,但这种状态很快将不复存在。门罗币、ZCash、Dash、 Zen Cash 等匿名币故意对交易进行模糊化处理。Zen Cash也正在搭建私密去中心化应用的基础设施。大幅度征税的做法推进了未来绝对隐私的实现,私密交易或将成为比特币或以太坊本质特征之一。倘若私密交易辅以去中心化交易所成为现实,那么我们的税收政策基本无法实行了。

7. 许多加密货币是其它加密货币的复制品

如果投资者交易的是某种加密货币的复制品或些许改进品,那么对其征税就有些不公平了。的确,有时候我们也很难分辨出哪种货币是原币,哪种货币是复制品。比如,最近某政府机构宣布Bitcoin Cash是原币,Bitcoin是复制品。

8. Stablecoins使问题复杂化

笔者最近与加密货币Aelf的联合创始人Zhuling Chen进行了会谈。Zhuling Chen认为,2018将会是stablecoin之年,stablecoin指的是受法定货币或实体资产支持的加密货币。Stablecoin可能会带来一系列问题,比如,若交易者交易的加密货币与美元挂钩,这就与在两种币种间交易并无区别。

9. 成本基准一片混乱

举个例子,交易者购买了价值1000美元的比特币,一个月后将其投资于某ICO。那么此ICO代币的成本是多少?是售出比特币时的价格?但应按哪种价格计算?比特币在不同交易所的价格不同,差额可达5%-10%。

10. 无法使用美元购入大部分比特币

若要购入小型加密货币,交易者需先买入比特币或以太币。而Coinbase等交易平台处理此类交易的时间可能长达一周,那么如果比特币或以台币的价格在此期间有所波动,就需即刻交税。

11. 中产阶层投资者受影响最深

为了避免自己的加密货币交易被征收重税,很多富人估计都会将资产转移到波多黎各自由邦等避税港。

12. 黑客攻击或意外损失难以避免

比如说交易者持有比特币,有黑客入侵其钱包并购买了其它货币。税务机构发现了这个交易,以为是钱包所有者的个人行为而对其征税。交易者无法证明该交易非自身操作。同样,若交易者打算进行交易,但却错误地填写了接收钱包地址,那么交易者比单失去了所有的货币,还会收到政府的缴税账单。

13. 将不幸的投资者推入绝境

加密货币市场在2017年达到峰值,2018年出现大幅震荡。若你在12月将比特币换为小型货币,而该货币也出现下跌,那么消费者需缴税额可能币净资产还要多,最终被迫出局。较为温和的税收政策应该给予投资者喘息的机会。

14. 精通加密货币征税知识的专家要么难求,要么收费昂贵

找到精通air drops、代币交易、forks、stablecoins、staking及未来新品的会计师与税务律师十分困难。的确有这样的专业人士存在,但他们的服务收费通常也很贵。

15. 征税徒劳无效

很少有人会对外透露自己通过加密货币的获得的收益。这样一来,威胁、惩罚与复杂的监管规则也就都达不到预想的效果。所以,为什么不直接简单一些呢?

 

Last year, Congress passed a law treating every crypto-to-crypto trade as a taxable event. That’s a mistake. Cryptocurrencies are too novel, fraught, and susceptible to unintended consequences to be taxed the same way as stocks and precious metals are. Here are 15 reasons why these trades shouldn’t be taxed.

1. Scam coins abound

A ponzi scheme, Bitconnect, once commanded a market cap of $2.8 billion; then it vanished overnight. Our tax policy rewards long-term holding, which is great when you’re hoarding Apple stock, but ruinous if you’re invested in a fly-by-night.

2. New blockchain tech emerges every week

The pace is blazing, and we need to give investors the flexibility to exit out of the laggards and move their investments into the disruptors. That’s how the mega-rich are minted, and we don’t want them all in Asia.

3. Tracking trades is a headache

There are dozens of exchanges and proprietary wallets, with more launching daily. Unlike bank accounts, which are static, traders need to actively shuffle their wallet addresses to stay secure. Logging this movement is a logistical nightmare, and some traders would rather risk an audit than bother.

4. We need more American exchanges

Why trade on an American exchange when you can hide your activity in Asia? Asian exchanges like Binance, Huobi, and OKEx are dominating American exchanges like GDAX and Bittrex in trade volume. And many new, promising entrants, like CoinSuper, are also based in Asia. Exchanges are a lucrative business; we should fight for their tax dollars.

5. A new type of exchange will elude the IRS

At this year’s Battle of the Cryptos event in NYC, a consensus trend prediction was the decentralized exchange. With an Asian exchange, the IRS might eventually gain access to their trading records. With a decentralized exchange, there’s no one to petition. Taxing exchange trades won’t work if there’s no way to audit them.

6. The future won’t have a paper trail

We can track most cryptocurrency movement today on public blockchains, but soon that won’t be the case. Privacy coins like Monero, ZCash, Dash, and Zen Cash obfuscate transactions by design. And Zen Cash is building the infrastructure for privacy-based, decentralized apps. Harsh tax treatment promotes a future with absolute privacy; we may even see Bitcoin or Ethereum add private transactions as a native feature. Combine private transactions with decentralized exchanges, and our tax policy operates on the honor system.

7. Many cryptocurrencies are clones of other cryptocurrencies

It’s unfair to pay taxes if you trade a coin for its exact replica or a slightly improved fork. Sometimes it’s not obvious which coin is the original and which is the copy. Recently, a government body claimed that Bitcoin Cash is the original Bitcoin and that what we call Bitcoin today is the fork.

8. Stablecoins complicate matters

I recently spoke with Zhuling Chen, the cofounder of Aelf, a top-100 cryptocurrency. He believes 2018 will be the year of the stablecoin: coins that are backed by fiat currencies or physical assets. Stablecoins raise a number of issues. For example, if you trade one coin that’s pegged to the dollar for another coin that’s pegged to the dollar, isn’t that like trading one dollar for one dollar?

9. Cost basis is a mess

Say you buy $1,000 worth of Bitcoin. A month later, you invest that Bitcoin in an ICO. What’s your cost basis for the ICO token? It should be the price of Bitcoin at the moment you sold it, but which price? Bitcoin is priced differently on different exchanges, and those prices can vary as much as 5-10 percent.

10. It’s impossible to buy most cryptocurrencies with U.S. dollars

In order to buy a smaller coin, you need to first buy Bitcoin or Ethereum. Platforms like Coinbase can take a week to process that purchase, so if the price of Bitcoin or Ethereum falls or rises in the meantime, that’s an immediate taxable event. Pain!

11. Middle-class investors suffer most

The wealthy are moving to Puerto Rico and other tax havens.

12. Hacking or accidental loss is an everyday affair

Say you were holding Bitcoin and someone hacked your wallet and used it to buy another coin. The IRS takes notice and taxes you as if you sold all your Bitcoin. There’s no way for you to prove that you didn’t make that trade. Similarly, if you intend to make a trade but copy-and-paste the recipient’s wallet address incorrectly, you’ve lost all your coins and the government will still stick you with a tax bill.

13. We’re putting unlucky traders in desperate straits

The market peaked in December and crashed in 2018. If you traded Bitcoin in December for a smaller coin and then that smaller coin tanked with the market, you could now owe more in taxes than your net worth, wiping you out. A gentler tax policy would give you a chance to recover.

14. Crypto-savvy tax professionals are hard to find and expensive

Good luck finding an accountant or tax lawyer who understands air drops, token sales, forks, stablecoins, mining, staking, and whatever else will be invented next week. Those professionals exist, but they come with a steep price tag.

15. It’s not working

No one is declaring their cryptocurrency profits. Threats, penalties, and complex rules are falling flat. Why not try simplicity and leeway?


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