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区块链国际资讯

印尼是如何应用区块链技术的?

区块链国际资讯

印尼是如何应用区块链技术的?

尽管印尼央行不断告诫其国民应注意加密货币风险,但该国监管部门目前对数字货币和区块链技术的态度却相对开放。

目前,印尼针对加密货币的唯一一个禁令出现在了支付领域,而加密货币交易平台和拥有加密资产则仍然是合法的。

巴厘岛区块链咨询公司Blockchain Zoo联合创始人Pandu Sastrowardoyo指出,印尼的地理位置独特,横跨大片区域并有众多岛屿。印尼的权力下放让地区享有更高自治度,但也带来了权力分化、监管空缺和欺诈频发等问题。你很容易就可以用一个假身份搬到另一个印尼岛上。为了应对这种现状,几家印尼国有银行和政府机构正在探索基于区块链的技术。印尼金融监管部OJK也鼓励此类应用。

在今天这篇文章中,我们就为您简单介绍一下区块链技术在印尼的几种应用模式。

案例1 : 打击欺诈

印尼有许多银行,包括仅在特地区域运营的地方银行。并不是每一家银行都能接入该国债务信息系统,只有大银行可以。

因此很多小银行共同的担心就是"贷款堆积",即一名借贷者举贷多个,有时拆东墙补西墙。无法获得集中信用评级信息,如此情况很难探测。Sastrowardovo说,区块链可以解决这一问题。多个银行之间建立一区块链节点,当用户申请银行账户时,他们的个人信息就会转换为一个特有的哈希值储存在该区块链上。如果同一名客户在别家银行又另申请账户,那各个银行就可以看到这个哈希值然后标记此为潜在欺诈行为。

案例2: 无网点银行

第二个正在酝酿中的区块链应用关注ATM机。Sastrowardoyo说:"印尼的互联性非常差,如果连接某一重要转换中心的线路故障,整个网络都将不可使用。"

如果每个ATM机上都有一个区块链节点,即使主要线路挂机,ATM依然可以保持连线并且支持基本功能。

案例3: 反腐败

反腐败管理中区块链应用可以大有作为。区块链可以增加透明度、简化流程并且去除中间人。具体操作层面通常和文件管理有关。

Sastrowardoyo说:"这一问题通常发生在文件交换过程中。"时间太长而且有许多人为错误和欺诈的可能。

基于区块链技术,公司或不同部门间可以构建一个安全的文件交换系统,并且数据无需储存在本地服务器上,减少欺诈可能。

案例4: 央行支持的加密货币--数字卢比

Sastrowardoyo证实,目前印尼正在研究创建由政府支持的数字卢比(印尼货币)。今年早期就有相关猜测,但央行事后说这一计划短期内不会进行。

Sastrowardoyo说政府考虑的并不是真正的加密货币,而更像一个基于区块链的电子货币系统。

印尼可能将是为数不多的已经有或正在准备发布国家数字货币的国家。

过分夸大 vs 真正的区块链应用

以上四种使用场景体现了印尼对于区块链应用的思考。作为一名咨询师,Sastrowardoyoyujian遇见过许多公司不管不顾强行应用区块链以通过ICO筹集资金。

尤其是当一家公司拥有某一流程的全部方面时,他们根本无需将之搬至区块链上,更简单的工具其实就可以解决问题。涉及各个不同利益方的市场交易才更需要应用区块链。比如新加坡保险市场交易平台FidentiaX。Sastrowardoyo的公司为他们提供了咨询。这一交易平台将你的保险产品数字化,可以大批量买卖,无需纸质文书交换,后者拖累了许多交易平台的处理速度。

Sastrowardoyo说:"这些交易平台已经存在,但有了区块链他们可以做得更好。我最喜欢的ICO中,科技往往是那个差异化因素。"

 

The Indonesian Central Bank repeatedly warns citizens about cryptocurrencies and cautions to understand the risks, but the country’s regulations are currently fairly open towards digital currencies and blockchain technology.

An actual ban only exists for cryptocurrencies in payments, but exchange platforms and ownership of crypto-assets are not. Several state-owned banks and government entities are in fact working on blockchain-based applications, and the country’s financial regulator, OJK, has encouraged this, says Pandu Sastrowardoyo, co-founder of Bali-based blockchain consulting firm Blockchain Zoo.

She points out that to use blockchain technology. Indonesia’s geography – spread across a vast area and many islands – makes it a unique case for implementations of blockchain, explains Sastrowardoyo. Indonesia’s decentralization has led to more regional autonomy, but this came with fragmentation, less oversight, and potential for fraud. It’s quite easy to move to another island with a false identity in Indonesia, Sastrowardoyo says.

Most big banks in Indonesia have announced they’re looking into blockchain technology and are thinking about potential use cases. Blockchain Zoo consults many of them. While she can’t the names involved in individual projects, Sastrowardoyo shared some ongoing blockchain implementations in Indonesia which are likely to launch within the year.

Indonesia’s Blockchain Use Case #1 – Anti Fraud

Indonesia has dozens of banks, including regional ones that operate only within a certain province. And not all of them have access to the country’s debt information system, only to bigger ones.

Thus, so-called loan stacking is a concern shared by many smaller banks – when a borrower takes out multiple loans and, in some cases, uses one to pay off another. Without consulting a centralized credit rating system, it becomes difficult to detect these cases.

Blockchain can solve this, Sastrowardoyo explains. A blockchain node is implemented between multiple banks. When people apply for a bank account, their customer information is translated into a unique hash that sits on the blockchain. If the same customer opens accounts elsewhere, the banks can see the hash, and they can flag the customer’s account as a potential for fraud.

Indonesia’s Blockchain Use Case #2 -Branchless Banking

A second application of blockchain that’s already being considered is for ATM machines. “Connectivity in Indonesia has lots of issues,” Sastrowardoyo. “If the connection to one important hub dies, the whole network goes down.”

If you implement a blockchain node on each of the ATMs, even if the main line gets disconnected, the ATMs would still be online and retains some basic functions.

Indonesia’s Blockchain Use Case #3 -Anti Corruption

There are plenty of possibilities for blockchain implementations in anti-corruption management, says Sastrowardoyo. Blockchain can help with increasing transparency, simplifying processes, and getting rid of middlemen. Put into more concrete terms, it often has to do with document management.

“The issue often occurs during the documents exchange,” Sastrowardoyo says. The process takes long, and there’s plenty of opportunity for human error and fraud.

Based on blockchain technology, it’s possible to construct a system that lets companies or different units within an organisation share documents in a secure way, without having the data leave local servers, Sastrowardoyo says. There’s a clear history of all document exchanges which reduces the possibility for fraud.

Indonesia’s Blockchain Use Case #4 -Central Bank Backed Cryptocurrency, Digital Rupiah

Sastrowardoyo confirms that there’s ongoing research looking into the creation of a Digital Rupiah, a cryptocurrency backed by the government. Rumors of this surfaced earlier this year, but the Central Bank later said the plans would not be rolled out anytime soon.

Sastrowardoyo says that what the government is considering is less of a real cryptocurrency, and more akin to an e-money system that runs on the blockchain.

Indonesia could join the short list of countries that already have, or are preparing to issue a state-run digital currency.

Separating the Hype from Real Blockchain Use Cases

These four application scenarios are all useful examples of how Indonesia is thinking about blockchain implementations. As a consultant, Sastrowardoyo has come across instances where companies force the implementation of blockchain, just so they can raise money through and ICO.

Especially when one company owns all the aspects of the process they plan to push onto the blockchain, the technology isn’t necessarily required because it could be solved with simpler tools.

Putting a marketplace that involve different stakeholders onto the blockchain makes much more sense, Sastrowardoyo. That’s what her consulting firm did for FidentiaX, a marketplace for insurance policies based in Singapore. The marketplace digitizes your insurance and you can sell them in bulk. There’s no need for a paper document transfer, which had slowed down the process of previous marketplaces significantly.

“These marketplaces already existed, but with the blockchain, it got much much better,” Sastrowardoyo says. “In my favorite ICOs, the technology is really a differentiator.”


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