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央行数字货币没戏了?至少这些国家是这么想的

全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯

央行数字货币没戏了?至少这些国家是这么想的

日本央行近期表示国家发行的加密货币存在风险。日本央行副行长Masayoshi Amamiya指出,国家数字货币可能危害发达国家的传统金融系统。他说,目前日本央行没有发行加密货币的计划。

影响金融稳定

日本央行副行长Masayoshi Amamiya在出席金融科技峰会时指出,央行发行的数字货币可能对现有的金融系统造成重大影响。面对来自国际货币基金组织(IMF)和日本金融厅(FSA)等机构的代表他公开宣布,日本央行暂时没有发行数字货币的计划。

Amamiya说,央行的职责就是解决不同支付工具可能带来的问题,这也是央行具备货币独家发行权的原因。在现代金融的双重系统中,商业银行为公众提供支付服务,并且通过信贷服务为国家经济做好资源配置。

Amamiya担忧央行数字货币将赋予普通家庭和企业直接访问央行账户的权利,这将对双重货币系统以及商业银行的金融中介地位造成重大影响。

他说,目前日本央行账户仅对部分企业开放,比如商业银行。

与此同时,Amamiya认为央行应该密切关注技术创新,这样才能为社会提供更好的金融架构。日本央行完全赞同了解创新技术的重要性,其目的不仅仅是维护金融稳定,还是为了探索技术应用。

国家数字货币是好是坏?

尽管如此,很多国家的央行和金融当局仍然选择支持政府发行的中心化加密货币。过去的几个月时间里,部分国家公布了发行此类数字货币的计划,无论其是否基于区块链。央行数字货币被视为是除比特币等去中心化加密货币以外的另一种选择,能够保证政府在使用这项技术的同时不必担心失去对金融系统的控制权。

本月初,瑞士央行管理委员会成员Andrea Maechler也对央行数字货币表示了担忧。她认为私有化的数字货币与央行发行的数字货币相比,风险更低,而央行数字货币无法向公众保证其是一个适用于无现金零售支付的高效系统。

Maechler认为,有了政府发行的加密货币之后,一旦发现某家银行陷入运作危机,人们可以轻易地将资金从账户中转移出去。Maechler指出,这种情况不会带来任何优势,反而给金融稳定性造成了不可估量的风险。

俄罗斯央行一开始也对国家加密货币的概念非常感兴趣,但其态度也在改变。去年,俄罗斯央行有意发行“加密卢布”,而目前这项计划已经被搁置了。央行副总裁Olga Skorobogatova表示推出国家数字货币的计划似乎并不合理。俄罗斯可能会与其在欧亚经济联盟(EAEU)以及金砖五国(BRICS)的伙伴一起研究创造一种通用的数字货币用于跨境交易。

负责监管加密货币的俄罗斯财政部也曾表示不看好“加密卢布”。财政部长Anton Siluanov在写给普京的信中提到,中心化的数字货币是不可能存在的,这是由加密货币的本质特点决定的,即分布式账本的去中心化特点。俄罗斯目前仍未决定具体的发展方向,今年提交到国家杜马的数字经济草案多达27部,其中有两项法案希望合法化ICO、挖矿,并对数字货币支付进行合理监管。

The Bank of Japan has become the latest government financial institution to recognize the risks of state-issued cryptocurrencies. According to its Deputy Governor Masayoshi Amamiya, a national digital coin may jeopardize the traditional financial system established in developed countries. The Japanese central bank has no plans to issue its own crypto, he said.

Centralized Coin to Hit Financial Stability

Digital currencies issued by central banks may have a large impact on the current financial system, the Deputy Governor of Japan’s central bank Masayoshi Amamiya said during a fintech conference. He told attendees, including representatives of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Japanese Financial Services Authority (FSA), that the Bank of Japan had no immediate plans to mint its own crypto.

Amamiya noted that central banks were established to overcome “the turmoil caused by multiple payment instruments.” That’s why they were assigned the exclusive role to issue “central bank money,” he explained. In the two-tiered modern financial system, private banks provide payment services to the general public and allocate financial resources to the economy through loans and credits. According to the Bank of Japan’s executive, this structure “reflects the wisdom of human beings in history to achieve both efficiency and stability.”

Masayoshi Amamiya shared his concerns that the issuance of central bank digital currencies will grant households and businesses direct access to central bank accounts. “This may have a large impact on the two-tiered currency system and private banks’ financial intermediation”, BOJ’s representative warned. Currently, the central bank allows direct access to its accounts only to a limited number of entities such as private banks, he remarked.

At the same time, Amamiya believes that central banks should always pay attention to ongoing innovation and follow technological advances in order to provide societies with the best financial infrastructure. BOJ fully acknowledges the importance of understanding innovative technologies not only for maintaining stability, but also for seeking their application in the future, the Deputy Governor said.

State Cryptos Rested on the Back Burner

Masayoshi Amamiya’s comments come at a time when a growing number of central banks and financial authorities are turning their backs on centralized, state-sponsored cryptocurrencies. Proposals to issue such digital coins, with or without blockchain, have been made in several countries over the past few months. They have been seen as alternatives to decentralized cryptocurrencies, like bitcoin, that would allow governments to use the technology without losing control over the financial system.

This month a high-ranking representative of the Swiss National Bank expressed concerns similar to those shared by BOJ’s Deputy Governor. Private-sector digital currencies are better and less risky than any version that might be offered by a central bank, according to Andrea Maechler, a member of the SNB’s governing board. “Digital central bank money is not necessary to ensure efficient cashless payments,” she said.

In Maechler’s words, a government-backed cryptocurrency would make it easier for people to withdraw their money, if they felt a bank was in difficulties. “It would deliver scarcely any advantages, but would give rise to incalculable risks,” she warned. Just like her Japanese colleague, Andrea Maechler saw a threat to the “tried and tested” two-tier system.

Initially enthusiastic about the idea of a state-backed cryptocurrency, the Central Bank of Russia has gradually changed its position, too. Plans to introduce a so-called “cryptoruble” have been postponed. Centrobank revealed intentions to study the possibility of issuing a “virtual national currency” last summer. Later, however, its Deputy President Olga Skorobogatova said “the introduction of a national digital currency seems unjustified”. Russia may instead seek consultations with its partners from EAEU and BRICS on creating a common digital coin for international transactions.

The Russian Finance Ministry, which has led efforts to regulate cryptocurrencies, has also indicated a negative stance on the “cryptoruble”. In a letter to President Putin, Minister Anton Siluanov said that a centralized digital coin isn’t possible due to certain features of cryptocurrencies, including the decentralized nature of distributed ledgers. Russia is now heading in a different direction, with 27 digital economy draft laws to be reviewed by the State Duma this year. Two of them aim to legalize initial coin offerings, mining, and possibly regulate digital currency payments.


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