最有看点的互联网金融门户

最有看点的互联网金融门户
全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯基于互联网平台的金融业务

实现普惠金融:金融科技、账户使用率与创新

全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯基于互联网平台的金融业务

实现普惠金融:金融科技、账户使用率与创新

近十年来,国际社会和各国政府为扩大普惠金融做出了不懈努力,希望借此创造一个惠及全民并推动稳定与公平进步的金融体系。

这是一项艰巨的挑战。早在2013年介入金融可及性问题之初,我们就提出要设定一个真实的目标,要有一个截止日期,使我们能够集中精力,给我们一个可以衡量进度的基准。

上个月,我们了解到我们取得了很大进展,这是值得庆祝的。根据全球金融包容性数据库的统计,在过去三年,在科技、私人投资、政策改革和国际社会支持等诸多因素的影响下,全球有5亿多人获得了金融交易账户。从2011年以来,拥有正式账户的成年人比例从51%上升到69%,获得金融服务的新增人口达到12亿。

全球金融包容性指数帮助各国政府和发展机构了解民众怎样使用账户,哪里存在差距,如何有针对性地进行干预,其洞见成为世界银行集团《全球金融普及倡议2020》的核心内容。该倡议的目的是确保到2020年所有成年人都有银行账户的全球性承诺。自从我们2013年宣布这一倡议以来,世界银行集团联合了金融界30多个合作机构,共同帮助推进这个重要目标。世行集团也仍按照既定目标通过自身工作履行到2020年新增10亿账户持有人的承诺。

从获得到使用

但是,仅仅获得账户还不够,重要的是民众是否使用使用金融服务,如何使用金融服务。归根结底,普惠金融的要点不仅仅是让民众拥有账户,还要利用账户来实现脱贫,从挫折中恢复,改善自身福祉。

最新的全球金融包容性指数显示出数字技术对金融可及性和使用率的影响。比如,如今在肯尼亚,70%以上的肯尼亚人使用手机通过移动货币账户进行交易。而在蒙古,移动货币账户拥有率从不到5%上升到20%左右。

金融科技创新、特别是网上支付的崛起也是非常值得关注。在中国,利用互联网付账或购物的账户持有人比例从24%骤增至57%。伴随因特网和电子商务而来的是大数据,大数据更加方便小企业在不断增多的市场上获得信贷。

有与无

最新的金融包容性指数也带来一个警示,我们迄今取得的进展是不平衡的,妇女、贫困和失业人口的金融状况仍然有待提高。

尽管整体上取得了进步,但有账户和无账户人口之间的差距之大同2011年我们开始评估时相比并无多大差异。如今,65%的女性拥有账户,比2014年的58%有所上升,但在发展中国家,男女之间的差距仍有9个百分点。在孟加拉,36%的妇女拥有账户,而男性的账户拥有率为65%,相差29个百分点。在巴基斯坦,男性开账户的可能性比女性大五倍。

要想缩小差距,我们就需要了解女性对金融服务的需求。我们了解到她们首先考虑的是私密性、低成本和安全性。但我们需要更清楚地认识到女性和男性的金融目标有什么不同,并找到能有助消除男女差距的产品和途径。

这种以客户为中心的视角使我们再次面临使用率的挑战。目前1/5的账户处于休眠状态,在过去12个月内无存取款交易记录。各地区的休眠账户率有所不同,南亚特别高。了解妇女、贫困人口、农民和其他受排斥人群的苦恼,对于设计新服务和新法规至关重要。

能否利用数字技术将付款直接存入账户,对于民众开设和使用账户是一个很好的跳板。例如,政府的数字化支付可以改善妇女中的普惠金融,在菲律宾可以提升20个百分点,在智利可以提升28个百分点。农业的数字化支付可以使莫桑比克、尼日利亚、越南等国的无账户人口减少1/4。工资的数字化支付可以纳入约2.3亿领现金工资的无账户人口。

汇款是另一个大有前途的领域:发展中经济体约有2.8亿账户持有人仍然使用现金或柜台服务汇款和收款,这其中包括孟加拉1000万人和印度6500万人。

以创新为引导

新技术将会改善数字化,降低提供金融服务的成本。例如,塞内加尔的电子货币管理规定与数字化政策相结合,为更多的电子货币发行机构开拓了市场,扩大了金融可及性。全球金融包容性指数显示,由于改革和促进竞争,2017年无账户成人比例从2014年的85%下降到58%。

其他干预措施包括改善基础设施,例如发放数字身份证。在民众能够使用数字身份识别的情况下,金融机构更有可能让他们开账户。

我们也展望未来,评估了区块链、人工智能以及其他具有重新配置整个金融服务价值链的金融科技创新的影响。

但是,我们需要在释放金融科技创新、管控风险与稳定和保护消费者、特别是贫困人口之间保持平衡。有些国家通过有趣的方式探讨这个问题。马来西亚和肯尼亚建立了“监管沙盒”,允许监管机构在控制的动态环境中观察创新,更好地了解潜在风险与机会。墨西哥和菲律宾在试点RegTech(监管科技),运用科技来简化监管合规和监督的成本和时间。

由于认识到普惠金融能够强化经济,减少不平等,帮助民众脱贫,很多国家都制定了国家普惠金融战略。这些方针聚集了金融监管机构、电信和竞争管理部门、社会福利和教育部门以及私营部门协调和加快普惠金融的进程。

自从开始跟踪全球普惠金融进程,我们已经取得了显著进步。亿万人获得了改善生活的机会。我们必须继续共同努力,联合政府、发展机构、民间社团和私营部门,确保受益人数不断增加。

For almost a decade, the global community and national governments have made concerted efforts to expand financial inclusion—creating a financial system that works for all and opens the doors to greater stability and equitable progress.

This has been a demanding challenge. At the start of our engagement on financial access back in 2013, we said that having a real target with an end date would keep us focused and give us a benchmark against which we could measure progress.

Last month we learned that we have made strong and consistent progress—a real cause for celebration. According to the Global Findex database, more than half a billion people gained a financial transaction account over the last three years, thanks to a combination of technology, private investment, policy reforms, and support from the global community. Since 2011, the share of adults with formal accounts has risen from 51 percent to 69 percent, and financial access has expanded to include an additional 1.2 billion people.

The Global Findex has helped national governments and development organizations understand how people use their accounts, where the gaps are, and how to target interventions. Its insights are central to the World Bank Group’s Universal Financial Access 2020 initiative, a global commitment to ensure that all adults have access to an account by 2020. Since we announced the initiative in 2013, the World Bank Group has added more than 30 partners across the financial sector to help reach this important goal. The Bank Group also remains on target to achieve its commitment to reach 1 billion new accountholders by 2020 through its work.

From access to use

But access isn’t enough. What matters is whether and how people use financial services. The point of financial inclusion, after all, is not just for people to possess an account but to use it to escape poverty, recover from setbacks, and improve their well-being.

The story that emerges from the latest Findex is one of digital technology’s impact on both access and usage. The example of mobile money in Kenya is well known: today, more than 70 percent of Kenyans use their mobile phones to make transactions from their mobile money accounts. In Mongolia, mobile money account ownership rose from less than 5 percent to around 20 percent. The rise of fintech innovations, especially internet-enabled payments, is the second big tech story.  In China, account owners using the internet to pay bills or make purchases jumped from 24 percent to 57 percent. With the internet and e-commerce comes big data, which is making credit more accessible for small firms in a growing number of markets.

To have and have-not

The new Findex data also carries a cautionary message. Our progress so far has been uneven—women, the poor, and people out of the workforce are being left behind.

Despite overall progress, the gaps between haves and have-nots remain as wide as they were when we began to measure in 2011. Sixty-five percent of women now have an account, up from 58 percent in 2014, but the gap between women and men remains a persistent 9 percentage points in developing countries. In Bangladesh, 36 percent of women have an account compared to 65 percent of men, a difference of 29 percentage points. In Pakistan, a man is five times more likely to open an account than a woman.

To close these gaps, we need to understand what women need and want from financial services. We understand that they prioritize privacy, low cost, and security; but we need to do a better job of recognizing how women’s and men’s financial goals differ and identify products and approaches that can help eliminate the gender gap.

This customer-centric perspective brings us again to the challenge of usage. Currently, one in five accounts is dormant, with neither a deposit nor a withdrawal in the past 12 months. Inactive account rates vary across regions but are especially high in South Asia. Understanding the pain points of women, the poor, farmers, and other excluded people will be critical for designing both new services and new regulations.

The ability to digitally depositing payments directly into accounts would be a great springboard for people to open and use accounts. Digitizing government payments, for example, could improve financial inclusion among women by up to 20 percentage points in the Philippines and 28 points in Chile. Doing the same with agricultural payments could reduce the number of unbanked by up to a quarter in Mozambique, Nigeria, and Vietnam. And digitizing wages could bring in about 230 million unbanked people who are paid in cash.

Remittances are another promising arena: roughly 280 million account owners in developing economies still use cash or over-the-counter services to send or receive remittances, including 10 million people in Bangladesh and 65 million in India.

Innovation in the lead

New technologies will improve digitization and reduce the cost of providing financial services. For example, e-money regulations in Senegal, coupled with digitization policies, opened up the market to more e-money issuers and increased financial access. Findex data show that the share of unbanked adults fell to 58 percent in 2017 from 85 percent in 2014, as a result of reforms and increased competition.

Other interventions involve improving infrastructure—for example issuing digital IDs. When people can prove who they are digitally, financial institutions are much more likely to let them open an account.

We are also looking to the future to see the impact of blockchain, artificial intelligence, and other fintech innovations that have the potential to reconfigure the entire value chain for financial services.

But we need to strike a balance between unleashing fintech innovations, managing risk and stability, and protecting consumers—especially the poor. Some countries are grappling with this in interesting ways. Malaysia and Kenya are setting up regulatory sandboxes, which allow regulators to observe innovations in a controlled live environment to better understand potential risks and opportunities. Mexico and the Philippines are experimenting with RegTech—applying technology to simplify the cost and time for regulatory compliance and oversight.

Recognizing that financial inclusion can strengthen economies, reduce inequality, and help millions of people lift themselves out of poverty, many countries have established national financial inclusion strategies. These approaches bring together financial regulators, telecommunications and competition authorities, social welfare and education ministries, and the private sector to coordinate and accelerate financial inclusion efforts.

We have made a lot of progress since we started tracking global financial inclusion. Millions of people have gained the chance to improve their lives. We must continue to work together – governments, development organizations, civil society, and the private sector – to make sure that number continues to grow.


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