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美国:国税局针对数字货币税收将出台更具体的指导

美国国税局(IRS)正在加紧着手调查与加密货币相关的税务欺诈和未报告的应纳税所得额。或许在不久的将来,将会有更清晰的法律和指导方针出现,而对于那些不合作的人,可能会提起诉讼并对这些人进行惩罚。

投资者和立法者对加密货币收入报告和纳税均表示困惑,而今年,美国国税局一直在从加密货币交易中收集大量数据。

今年1月,加密货币交易所巨头Coinbase在针对美国国税局的诉讼中败诉,这使得美国国税局得以获取约13000名交易所客户的财务文件。

美国国税局表示,很少有纳税人会对他们的加密货币交易进行纳税申报:

一些媒体报道显示,2017年有大约900亿美元的未报告收益。这表明了我们在比特币等相关加密货币交易方面的大幅增长。而在纳税申报方面,并没有显示太多的加密货币交易收入。

美国国税局的刑事调查特别探员、负责打击在线“黑市”丝绸之路的特别小组负责人Gary Alford则向那些不合规的投资者发出警告:

自2013年以来,我们就一直在参与这个项目,而现在我们正在收集更多的信息。

美国国税局已经明确了对加密货币收入征税的立场。他们从交易所获得的信息越多,就越容易制定更具体的立法,同时也会密切关注用户的应税商品。

许多投资者和交易所所有者认为,美国国税局正在通过收集客户的财务记录来获取更多的信息。大多数加密货币用户和立法者都希望看到更清晰、更明确的法规和法律。

税务律师Toscher还指出,有必要建立一种简单的机制来记录加密货币交易,同时指出他相信数字货币在未来几年将在经济中扮演更重要的角色:

加密货币有很多种。交易所也越来越多。从很大程度上来说,这些目前都完全不受监管。尽管SEC已经开始关注这些交易了。但是,目前这些都只是电脑上的信息,只适合用信息报告。经纪人、交易员需要报告他们的基础信心,如果这些真的将成为经济的重要组成部分,我认为,财政部和国税局就需要去考虑这些问题。目前,大的券商已经开始进入这个领域,这就意味着我们需要关注这个问题了。

与此同时,加密货币投资者被要求定期记录加密货币交易和持有的资产。美国税务律师Tyson Cross建议使用 Bitcoin.tax和Cointracking.info来帮助用户跟踪和计算加密货币税。他说:

它将计算你所有的资本收益,然后你可以把它作为报告导出,用它来报税。

The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is stepping up its investigations into cryptocurrency-related tax fraud and unreported taxable gains. Clearer laws and guidelines are expected in the near future and could open the door to litigation and penalties against those who fail to cooperate.

‘I THINK THE JURY IS STILL OUT’

Reporting and paying taxes on cryptocurrencies is a topic of confusion among investors and lawmakers alike, while the Internal Revenue Service has been collecting more and more data from cryptocurrency exchanges over the course of this year. In January, exchange giant Coinbase lost a court case against the IRS, allowing the bureau access to the financial documents of around 13,000 of the popular exchange’s customers.

The IRS says that very few taxpayers actually report and pay tax on their cryptocurrency transactions.

Tax attorney Steven Toscher said recently during New York University’s Tax Controversy Forum:

Some of the press reports indicate there were some $90 billion of unreported gains in 2017. That’s when we got the big spike in bitcoin-related currencies. There’s not a lot of cryptocurrency transactions being reported on tax returns. I think the jury is still out.

IRS criminal investigations special agent Gary Alford — head of the task force that brought down the online ‘black market’ Silk Road — warns noncompliant investors:

We have been involved in this since 2013 so we are ahead of the curve […] Now we’re waiting to see as more and more information comes out, we’re looking to use some of that information that we’ve collected.

The IRS has made its stance on paying cryptocurrency taxes clear. The more information that they gain from the exchanges, the easier it will become to make more concrete legislation and, at the same time, keep tabs on users’ taxable goods.

Many investors and exchange owners think the IRS is stepping over its boundaries by collecting customers’ financial records.

‘A SIGNIFICANT PART OF THE ECONOMY’

The majority of both cryptocurrency users and lawmakers want to see clearer, more defined regulations and laws.

Toscher also pointed out the need for a simple mechanism for recording one’s cryptocurrency transactions, while noting his belief that digital currencies will play a much more significant part in the economy in the years to come:

There are a lot of cryptocurrencies. There are a lot of different exchanges out there, totally unregulated at this point, or largely, though the SEC is starting to look at those. But this is all computer-driven information. It lends itself to information reporting. Broker-dealers have to issue their 1099s, their basis information, and I think that’s what Treasury and the IRS need to be looking at if this is truly going to be a significant part of the economy. You see big brokerages moving into this area, so I think we need to start looking at that.

In the meantime, cryptocurrency investors are urged to keep regular records of cryptocurrency transactions and holdings.

Tyson Cross, a U.S. based tax attorney, suggests using services such as Bitcoin.tax and Cointracking.info to assist users in tracking and calculating cryptocurrency taxes. He said:

It will calculate all of your capital gains, and then you can export that as a report and use it to file your taxes.


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