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全新的互联网金融模式区块链国际资讯

《纽约时报》:常见区块链技术及项目简介

全新的互联网金融模式区块链国际资讯

《纽约时报》:常见区块链技术及项目简介

比特币让区块链技术得以应用,很多人也开始大量尝试采用类似的特殊加密技术去保存信息。

社会对于区块链的定义存在很大争议,不过大部分区块链都在试图建立一个可供自己内部信息共享的单一数据库。

大部分区块链都有比特币这类的新型虚拟货币,但全球各大企业和政府对其有效储存庞大数据的功能更感兴趣。

下面是各公司、政府正在大力推进的一些区块链项目。

公共区块链

很多新型加密货币和比特币一样,会将所有交易信息记录在公共区块链系统中,每个人无需经他人许可即可参与其信息更新。

比特币(市值1050亿美元)

比特币作为原始的区块链,起初目标是成为一种新型网络货币,结果却成了黄金一类的稀有数字商品,并衍生出一个巨大的交易市场。

Exonum上的所有交易都是用比特币完成的。

Exonum

Exonum是比特币矿业巨头Bitfury推出的一个开源区块链框架,可作为政府储存数据的一种手段。

以太坊(市值450亿美元)

以太坊的目标是创造全球共享的计算机系统,相较比特币,它的优点在于可支持写入智能合约。以太坊上的代币称为以太币,可用于支付运算服务费。

以下几家私人区块链软件也采用了以太坊的核心技术。

  1. Axcore:创企Axoni针对金融行业专门对以太坊进行调整,设计出了自己的区块链软件。
  2. Autonity:英国区块链公司Clearmatics和几家银行合作,发行基于区块链技术的新型Utility Settlement Coin(USC代币),该代币可用于跨行支付。
  3. 以太坊私有链:企业以太坊联盟(Enterprise Ethereum Alliance)旨在开发相关技术,帮助企业更好地利用以太坊私有区块链。
  4. Quorum:这是由摩根大通推出的、基于以太坊的联盟链,现已在金融行业以外的领域有所应用。

基于区块链平台的加密货币

有少数几家主流加密货币将交易内容记录在任何人都可读取的公共账本上,而这些账本是通过区块组成的链式结构来实现的。

Ripple(市值180亿美元)

Ripple是一家新型分布式账本公司,平台加密货币为XRP。Ripple掌握了大部分XRP,同时希望其他金融公司也使用XRP进行跨网交易,他们认为这有助于企业节约时间和成本。

跨账本协议(Inter Ledger Protocol)是由Ripple开发的软件。

跨账本协议(Inter Ledger Protocol)

用户可借该协议在多种账本(包括传统银行账簿)中实现交易的无缝对接,也不需使用数字代币。

Stellar由Ripple联合创始人Jed McCaleb建立,采用的也是Ripple的代码。

Stellar(市值30亿美元)

Jed McCaleb因与其他创始人关系不合从Ripple离职,后建立了Stellar。Stellar采用的编码规则与Ripple类似,但McCaleb在此基础上进行了改进,该平台的代币称为Lumen。

I.B.M投资了Stellar,并将其作为Fabric项目的一种支付手段。

超级账本Fabric

超级账本是IBM开源的区块链项目,现由Linux运作,希望借此建立全球区块链规则。Fabric是其中最成功的项目。

其他私有区块链

很多公司建立了完全自主开发的私人区块链,以供企业及政府使用。这些区块链可用于计算机组内部的信息共享,不对公众开放。

  1. Corda:众多大型跨国银行结成的联盟R3针对金融市场开发的软件。它采用了区块链的概念,但并不被认为是区块链的一种。
  2. Chain Core:美国创企Chain针对金融交易开发的区块链。
  3. Setl:伦敦一家创企在欧洲银行支持下研发的区块链。
  4. Digital Asset Platform:摩根大通前经理Blythe Master创立的公司在几家大型银行支持下开发的区块链。
  5. Sawtooth:原本由Intel开发,现属于超级账本项目成员。

The original blockchain created by Bitcoin has inspired thousands of other attempts to record information in the distinctive fashion the cryptocurrency pioneered.

While there's a hot debate about how to define a blockchain, most projects using the term try to create a single database that is shared and maintained by a group of people or institutions.

The vast majority of blockchains involve new virtual currencies like Bitcoin. But corporations and governments around the world have also become interested in ways to use the technology to reliably store vast amounts of data.

Here are some of the most ambitious blockchain projects companies and governments are working on.

Public Blockchains

Many new cryptocurrencies are like Bitcoin and record all transactions on public blockchains that anyone with a computer can help to update, without requiring permission from anyone.

Bitcoin (MARKET CAP $105 BIL.)

The original blockchain-based virtual currency has not lived up to its original goal of being a new online currency, but it has won favor as a scarce digital commodity similar to gold, giving rise to a vast global trading market.

All Exonum transactions are anchored on the Bitcoin blockchain. (other relations with bitcoin)

Exonum

Built by a large manufacturer of Bitcoin mining computers, Bitfury, Exonum has been marketed to public officials as a way to store government records.

Ethereum (MARKET CAP $45 BIL.)

Ethereum goes beyond Bitcoin to allow people to write so-called smart contracts into its blockchain, with the goal of creating a shared global computing system. The internal currency, Ether, can be used to pay for computing power.

Several private blockchains have taken their basic design from the Ethereum software. (derived from the same blockchain)

  1. Axcore: The start-up Axoni has built its own version of Ethereum specifically designed for the financial industry.
  2. Autonity: The British start-up Clearmatics has worked with several banks to build a so-called Utility Settlement Coin that banks can use to settle transactions between them.
  3. Ethereum private blockchain: " The Enterprise Ethereum Alliance has helped create several private versions of Ethereum and supported companies building applications on top of them.
  4. Quorum: This closed variant of Ethereum was originally produced by a team at JPMorgan Chase, but has since gained use outside the financial industry.

Blockchain-Inspired Cryptocurrencies

A handful of large cryptocurrencies are recorded on ledgers that anyone can access, but that still rely to some degree on a central institution or company. The ledgers for these coins were inspired by blockchains but rely on new data structures.

Ripple (MARKET CAP $18 BIL.)

Ripple is the chief player behind a new kind of shared ledger, which uses the digital token known as XRP. Ripple holds most of the XRP tokens, and has encouraged financial firms to use XRP to make cross-border payments faster and cheaper.

The Inter Ledger Protocol was created by programmers at Ripple. (other relations)

Inter Ledger Protocol

Ripple, the company, developed software that can communicate among different ledgers, even traditional bank ledgers, without digital tokens involved.

Stellar was founded by a Ripple co-founder, Jed McCaleb, using Ripple's code. (derived from the same blockchain)

Stellar (MARKET CAP $3 BIL.)

Jed McCaleb created Stellar after his contentious departure from Ripple. Stellar was McCaleb's effort to improve on Ripple while using similar principles. It is overseen by a central foundation, and its token is known as the Lumen.

I.B.M. has brought Stellar in as a payment method for projects on Fabric.(other relations)

Hyperledger Fabric

Hyperledger is a foundation that was spearheaded by IBM and is now run by the Linux Foundation to create global blockchain standards. Fabric is its most successful creation.

Other Private Blockchains

A number of companies have built their own private blockchains for corporate and government use from the ground up, without using an existing blockchain as a starting point. These private blockchains are designed to be shared among groups of computers, but are not open to the public.

  1. Corda: Developed by R3, a consortium of dozens of large global banks, with a focus on financial markets. Corda is not considered a blockchain, though it uses blockchain concepts.
  2. Chain Core: Developed by the American-based start-up, Chain, for financial transactions.
  3. Setl: Created by a London based start-up, with backing from European banks.
  4. Digital Asset Platform: The product of a start-up created by the former JPMorgan Chase executive Blythe Masters, with backing from several big banks.
  5. Sawtooth: Initially developed by Intel, now overseen by the Hyperledger foundation.

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