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出击加密犯罪!欧盟最严反洗钱指令生效

欧盟于上月发布的针对加密货币的反洗钱指令已于7月9日正式生效。这是欧盟发布的第五项反洗钱指令,该指令中的措施将为欧洲金融监管机构制定新的法律框架,以合理地监管数字货币来防止洗钱和恐怖主义融资。

正如欧盟委员会在随附的新闻稿中所写的,新的规定在透明度方面制定了更为严格的要求,尤其针对通过“预付卡匿名支付”及“虚拟货币交易平台”进行洗钱或恐怖主义融资的行为。欧盟委员会表示:“第五项反洗钱指令还增加了反洗钱(AML)和审慎监管机构之间的合作和信息交流,包括与欧洲中央银行的合作和交流。”

欧盟委员会还提到为了确保打击潜在的加密货币犯罪,相关当局应该能够获取它们的使用方式。“就打击反洗钱及恐怖主义融资而言,当局应该通过有义务的实体来监测虚拟货币的具体使用情况。”

而为了使监管机构能够有效监控虚拟货币,委员会还指出监管机构应该将加密货币的地址与所有者联系起来,并形成自我报告机制。委员会表示:“为了对抗匿名性所带来的风险,国家的金融情报部门(FIUs)应该可以获取允许他们将虚拟货币地址与所有者的身份相关联的信息。此外,还应进一步评估是否有可能使用户自愿向指定当局进行自我申报。”

随着新指令的正式生效,各成员国现在有18个月的时间将新立法纳入其本国法律。

The EU Fifth Anti-Money Laundering Directive came into force yesterday, July 9, Cointelegraph auf Deutsch reports July 10. Measures within the directive will set a new legal framework for European financial watchdogs to regulate digital currencies in order to protect against money laundering and terrorist financing.

As the EU Commission wrote in an accompanying press release, the new rules enact stricter transparency requirements directed at the use of “anonymous payments through prepaid cards” and  “virtual currency exchange platforms” for the purposes of money laundering or terrorist financing. The EU Commission writes:

“The 5th Anti-Money laundering directive also increases the cooperation and exchange of information between anti-money laundering (AML) and prudential supervisors, including with the European Central Bank”.

The Commission writes that in order to assure proper protections against the possible illicit use of digital currencies, the proper authorities should be able to observe how they are used:

“For the purposes of anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT), competent authorities should be able, through obliged entities, to monitor the use of virtual currencies”.

In order for regulators to effectively monitor virtual currencies, the Commission states that regulators should be able to associate currency addresses with owners, and should form a mechanism for self-reporting:

“To combat the risks related to the anonymity, national Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) should be able to obtain information allowing them to associate virtual currency addresses to the identity of the owner of virtual currency. In addition, the possibility to allow users to self-declare to designated authorities on a voluntary basis should be further assessed”.

However, so-called "local currencies", which are used only to a very limited extent (such as within a city or region) or only by a small number of users, will be excluded from consideration as virtual currencies under the new directive. The EU Commission has presented a summary of the new Directive in a separately published factsheet.

With the ascension of the new Directive, member states now have 18 months to adopt the new legislation to their own national laws. The 28 member bloc agreed upon the terms of the new Directive in April of this year.


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