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美众议院通过FinCEN改进法案,内容涉及加密货币等事项

昨日,美国众议院通过了一项两党联合提案——《FinCEN2018改进法案》(FinCEN Improvement Act of 2018),如果该法案得以实施,将扩展金融犯罪执法网络的执法范围。FinCEN是美国财政部一个负责协调各执法机构打击洗钱和非法金融活动的部门。

该法案对现行法律作出了三项实质性修改。它扩大了该网络的执法范围。它规定了FinCEN除了与联邦、州、地方和外国执法机构合作外,还应与部落执法机构合作。它还补充说,FinCEN的数据收集和分析工作应该将加密货币囊括在内,或者如法案所写,应 “涉及新兴技术或替代货币价值的事项”。该法案的“调查结果”部分对这些变化的必要性作出了解释:

“虽然使用和交易虚拟货币属司法实践范畴,但一些恐怖分子和犯罪分子,包括国际犯罪组织,试图利用全球金融体系的漏洞,越来越多地使用虚拟货币等新兴支付方式转移非法资金。”

一周前,众议院恐怖主义和非法金融小组委员会(The House Subcommittee on Terrorism and Illicit Finance)听取了有关恐怖分子使用加密货币的证词。来自制裁和非法金融中心(the Center on Sanctions and Illicit Finance)的Yaya Fanusie在证词中提到:

“新兴的金融技术为筹集和转移资金提供了新渠道。”

他建议政府现在就采取行动,以“应对金融生态系统不断演变带来的新风险”。

该法案由众议院代表Ed Perlmutter (D-CO)与Steve Pearce(R-NM)共同起草,Ed Perlmutter在关于法案通过的声明中说道:

“识别和打击恐怖主义和其他非法活动的融资是保证美国安全的关键。在审查恐怖分子和犯罪分子如何使用加密货币和其他新兴技术以及传统的融资方式时,我们需要做好准备并保持警惕。这项立法将帮助FinCEN和我们的执法机构更好地了解潜在的威胁,并适应不断变化的形势。”

Yesterday, the House of Representative passed the FinCEN Improvement Act of 2018, a bipartisan bill that, if enacted, would expand the role of the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). FinCEN, a division of the Treasury Department, is responsible for coordinating with various law enforcement agencies to combat money laundering and illicit financial activity.

The bill makes three substantive changes to the current law. It broadens the network's mandate to cover terrorism, while currently it only covers "international terrorism." It specifies that FinCEN should work with tribal law enforcement agencies, in addition to the federal, state, local, and foreign enforcement agencies with which it currently works. And it adds that FinCEN's data collection and analysis efforts should include cryptocurrency, or, in the words of the bill, "matters involving emerging technologies or value that substitutes for currency."

Explaining the necessity of these changes, the "findings" section of the bill states:

"Although the use and trading of virtual currencies are legal practices, some terrorists and criminals, including international criminal organizations, seek to exploit vulnerabilities in the global financial system and are increasingly using emerging payment methods such as virtual currencies to move illicit funds."

A week ago, the House Subcommittee on Terrorism and Illicit Finance heard testimony regarding terrorist use of cryptocurrency. Yaya Fanusie, from the Center on Sanctions and Illicit Finance, testified that "emerging financial technologies offer new channels to raise and move funds." He recommended the government act now to "address new risks emerging from an evolving financial ecosystem."

In a statement regarding the passage of the bill, Representative Ed Perlmutter (D-CO), who co-sponsored the bill with Steve Pearce (R-NM), stated:

"Identifying and combatting the financing of terrorism and other illicit activity is key to keeping the U.S. safe. We need to be prepared and stay vigilant as we examine how terrorists and criminals use cryptocurrencies and other emerging technologies as well as traditional financing methods. This legislation will help FinCEN and our law enforcement agencies better understand potential threats and adapt to the continually changing landscape."


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