最有看点的互联网金融门户

最有看点的互联网金融门户
国际资讯监管与政策

瑞士颁布金融科技牌照新规

国际资讯监管与政策

瑞士颁布金融科技牌照新规

2018年8月28日,瑞士金融市场监管机构(FINMA)就AMLO-FINMA(反洗钱条例)拟修改议案提起公共咨询(Vernehmlassung),拟修改内容与新的金融科技执照类型有关。

新的金融科技执照将受到修改后的瑞士银行法案(后文简称BA)和修改后的瑞士银行条例(后文简称BO)监管。这两条规定将于2019年1月1日生效。

瑞士议会2018年6月15日通过金融科技执照的相关条款。修改后的BA规定,接受公众存款最高1亿瑞郎但不利用这笔资金投资或支付存款利息的公司将可以申请金融科技执照(而不是常规银行执照)。

此外,FINMA还将修改AMLO-FINMA,根据AML体制规定具体尽职调查要求。公共咨询将持续至2018年10月26日,部分修订的AMLO-FINMA将于2019年1月1日生效(与BA/BO同时)。

BA、BO(草案)关于金融科技执照规定

2019年1月1日起,BA将规定两种执照:常规银行执照和新的金融科技执照。主要经营活动是金融领域的公司如果接受公众存款最高达1亿瑞郎,只要不再投资或支付存款利息就可以申请新的金融科技执照。申请此执照的一个要求就是公司必须不能使用利息差商业模式也不能产生任何利息差利润。公司不能以自己名义发放贷款或为自己购买投资产品。公司还需立即将存款转移至下一方(如商业计划开发商)。在某些情况下,金融科技公司可以不定期持有此类资金。

另一要求就是公司必须遵守特定的组织形式、风险管理和合规标准。(草案)BO强调了金融科技公司的信息义务以及取得执照前必须满足获得执照、组织形式、风险管理与合规的要求。

比如(草案)BO要求金融科技公司的组织形式必须是在瑞士的股份制公司或有限责任公司,最低资本要求30万瑞郎。金融科技公司还需确保他们有足够的合规和风险管理能力开记录、评估和控制商业风险。一些小型低风险金融科技公司可适用合规和风险管理组织架构方面的放松要求。

金融科技公司的商业模式或活动必须由有执照的审计公司审议。获得执照的金融科技公司接受的存款不受保护且公司破产或无清偿能力时无优先权利。所以金融科技公司必须告知存款者他们的取回存款权利不受法律保护。

AML规定、AMLO-FINMA(草案)规定的金融科技执照

根据AML监管体制,金融科技公司与直接受监管的金融中介(DSFIs)遵守相同的尽职调查义务,尤其如果他们的规模相当。金融科技公司可以接受最高1亿瑞郎的公众存款,因此FINMA认为他们比DSFI更具风险,从而并不是所有DSFI享受的监管放松都适用于金融科技公司。

例如金融科技公司在任何情况下都必须基于风险分析确定风险标准(AMLO-FINMA草案规定)。DSFI只有在与20人及以上建立商业关系时才需要这么做。同样,金融科技公司必须通过指导意见预防洗钱和资助恐怖主义,而DSFI如果雇员不超过10个则无此义务。

DSFI雇员不超过20人时可以享受内部反洗钱部门相关的监管放松,而金融科技公司则需总收入不超过150万瑞郎并且证明自己经营较低风险业务(不考虑雇佣人数)才可享受此项放松条款。

On 28 August 2018, the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (FINMA) announced an open discussion (Vernehmlassung) on the proposed amendments to the Anti-Money Laundering Ordinance (AMLO-FINMA), concerning the new license category "FinTech". The new FinTech license will be regulated by the amended Swiss Banking Act (BA) as well as the amended Swiss Banking Ordinance (BO), both of which shall enter into force on 1 January 2019.

The Swiss parliament adopted the provision on the new FinTech license on 15 June 2018. Under the amended BA, companies that accept public deposits of up to CHF 100 million, but that do not invest or pay interest on such deposits, will be eligible to apply for a FinTech license (rather than the normal banking license).

In addition, FINMA will amend the AMLO-FINMA to provide specific due diligence requirements under the Swiss AML-regulation regime. The discussion (Vernehmlassung) on AMLO-FINMA will continue until 26 October 2018, and the partially revised AMLO-FINMA shall enter into force on 1 January 2019 (simultaneously with the amended BA / BO).

This newsletter provides an overview on the upcoming regulatory framework regarding the new FinTech license.

FinTech License under the BA / the (draft) BO

As of 1 January 2019, the BA will provide for two types of licenses: a normal banking license and a new FinTech license. Companies that are mainly involved in the financial sector may apply for the new FinTech license if they take deposits from the public of up to CHF 100 million as long as the applying company neither re-invests the funds nor promises to pay interest on them.

One requirement for obtaining the FinTech license is therefore that the company must not operate an interest margin business model nor generate any interest margin profit. It may not grant loans or buy investment products in its own name or for its own account. Further, it is obliged to promptly pass the deposits on (for example, to a business project developer). Subject to certain conditions, however, FinTech companies may hold the funds for an indefinite time period.

Another requirement for obtaining the FinTech license is that the company must comply with certain organisational, risk management, and compliance standards. The (draft) BO specifies that the FinTech companies’ information duties as well as the licensing, organisational, risk management, and compliance requirements must be fulfilled before a license is granted.

For example, the (draft) BO sets forth that FinTech companies must be incorporated as share corporations or limited liability companies in Switzerland, and that the minimum capital must be CHF 300'000. Also, FinTech companies must ensure that they have adequate compliance and risk management to record, evaluate, and limit business risks. Some organisational relaxations regarding compliance and risk management may, however, apply for smaller and low risk FinTech companies.

The FinTech companies' business models or activities must also be reviewed by a licensed auditor. Deposits provided to the licensed FinTech companies are not protected or privileged upon their bankruptcy or insolvency. It is thus imperative that FinTech companies inform the creditors about their claims not being protected by law.

FinTech License under the AML-regulation / the draft AMLO-FINMA

FINMA announced that the corresponding AML-due diligence requirements must be defined in detail for licensed FinTech companies that fall within the amended BA / BO scope of applicability.

As a rule, under the AML-regulation, FinTech companies must comply with the same due diligence duties as directly supervised financial intermediaries (DSFIs), in particular if their sizes are comparable. Because FinTech companies are, however, allowed to take deposits up to CHF 100 million, FINMA considers these FinTech companies as engaging in riskier businesses than DSFIs; thus, not all of the regulatory reliefs granted to DSFIs will apply to FinTech companies.

In contrast to DSFIs, for example, FinTech companies are - in any case - obliged to determine risk criteria based on risk analyses (pursuant to the draft AMLO-FINMA). DSFIs would be required to do so only if they have business relationships with at least 20 people. Similarly, FinTech companies must – without exemption – adopt guidelines to prevent anti-money laundering and terrorism financing while a DSFI is exempt from such duty if DSFI employs less than 10 people.

Finally, DSFIs may benefit from organisational relaxation concerning the requirements applicable to the internal anti-money laundering competence center so long as not more than 20 people are employed; in contrast, FinTech companies may only benefit from such an organisational relaxation if the FinTech companies' gross income is less than CHF 1.5 million and if they can provide evidence that they operate a lower-risk business (regardless of the number of people employed).


用微信扫描可以分享至好友和朋友圈

扫描二维码或搜索微信号“iweiyangx”
关注未央网官方微信公众号,获取互联网金融领域前沿资讯。

发表评论

发表评论

您的评论提交后会进行审核,审核通过的留言会展示在下方留言区域,请耐心等待。

评论

您的个人信息不会被公开,请放心填写! 标记为的是必填项

取消

从3家创企看阿根廷金融科技产业未来

栀航 4小时前

迪拜Alcazar资本计划合作设立1亿美元金融科技基金

Finextra | FINEXTRA 1天前

新加坡与印尼签署金融科技合作备忘录

Finextra | FINEXTRA 1天前

分割化数据隐私监管可能会阻止金融科技的发展

高旭 2天前

传统银行如何应对金融科技的挑战?新加坡提供了一个极佳模板

Rashmi Kum... 10-11

版权所有 © 清华大学五道口金融学院互联网金融实验室 | 京ICP备17044750号-1