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全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯监管与政策

澳大利亚想“合法”获取用户加密信息,加密世界根基是否就此动摇?

全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯监管与政策

澳大利亚想“合法”获取用户加密信息,加密世界根基是否就此动摇?

澳大利亚正在进行一场有关公民隐私权利的“战争”。

根据福布斯报道,日前,澳大利亚政府对外推出了一项名为 ‘Assistance and Access’(援助与访问)的法案,如果该法案获批通过,澳大利亚政府将可能通过“backdoor”(后门访问)的方式获取人们的加密内容,并对其进行监视。

福布斯称,澳大利亚公民很可能会因此失去网络隐私,而美国和欧洲可能效仿采取类似的法规,这不仅对全球区块链社区有重大影响,对投资者也有重大影响。

具体来说,该条法案为澳大利亚政府提供了三项新权利:

  1. 能够自愿请求公司提供帮助以获取信息;
  2. 能够在获取信息的过程中要求公司提供帮助;
  3. 在现有技术上建立一种 backdoor 功能,这种功能可能会破坏用户的加密。

加密和监管终究不可兼得?

一方面,DApp 依赖于区块链技术,另一方面 DApp 又为技术提供了落地场景应用,因此,DApp 和区块链是相辅相成,不可分割的。如果澳大利亚的法案得以通过,一向来倡导加密、隐私回归用户的 DApp,可能会受到威胁。

根据State of the DApps(一个每天跟踪和更新DApp统计数据的平台)数据显示,目前市面上共有 1945 个 DApp,日活用户大约达 12900 人次。

尽管2017 年到 2018 年间,DApp 数量在稳步增长,但该法案依旧威胁到了 DApp 开发的本质。

试想一下,假若‘Assistance and Access’法案真的通过,一向强调“用户对自己的在线数据和隐私有绝对的控制权”的 DApp 应当如何在新监控法律下生存呢?如果大部分区块链网络拒绝服从澳大利亚当局的要求,DApp 会怎样呢?会是所有区块链开发者违反了法律吗?DApp 会变成非法应用?

监管的潘多拉魔盒即将被开启?

福布斯报道中称,如果该法案通过,澳大利亚对 DApp 的监管将可能扩大到五眼联盟(FVEY)。该联盟由澳大利亚、加拿大、新西兰、英国和美国的情报机构组成,五个国家组成的情报间谍联盟内部实现互联互通情报信息,窃取来的商业数据在这些国家的政府部门和公司企业之间共享。

五眼联盟在上个月曾发布声明称,“隐私不是绝对的”,“应该在极少的情况下”使用端到端加密技术。五眼联盟情报网络国家将通过新的立法来访问用户的加密电子邮件、短信和语音通讯信息等。

一时间,不少从业者对该项法案表示反对。

日前,微软、Facebook和部分世界上最大的科技公司向总检察长办公室提交了一份长达四页的通知,以反对澳大利亚提出的新法案。通知中写道:“我们认为,澳大利亚商界正在利用目前‘自愿数据泄露’的法案。”

事实上,加密和监管的冲突并非首次发生。

2016 年 2 月 16 日,苹果公司首席执行官库克在一封致客户的公开信中警告用户称,美国政府要求苹果公司为加利福尼亚州圣贝纳迪诺一名枪手的 iPhone 提供后门访问(backdoor access)服务。苹果拒绝了这一要求,理由是这将打开监管的潘多拉盒子。

同样的事情,也发生在了加密即时通讯应用 Telegram 身上。但这一次,Telegram则选择了妥协。

今年 8 月 28 日,Telegram 同意向俄罗斯联邦安全局( FSB )提供与恐怖分子相关的 IP 地址和电话号码等数据,但不提供通讯内容。

没有人能确切地说出这个有争议的监视法案究竟是好是坏。但可以确定的是,如果这个法案真的通过了,这可能会给 DApp 开发者、区块链社区、投资者和任何重视隐私的人带来一定的麻烦。

There is a battle going on in Australia for the citizens’ right to privacy. The Australian government has proposed a bill which, if passed, will give the Australian government backdoor access to encrypted messages for the purpose of surveillance.

What starts in Australia could set a new standard for anti-privacy legislation around the world. If it’s successful, the United States and Europe could follow suit in adopting similar regulations.

The ‘Assistance and Access’ bill proposes three new powers for the Australian government.

  1. The ability to make a voluntary request for assistance from a company to get information.
  2. To be able to demand assistance from a company in getting information.
  3. To build new ‘backdoor features’ into the technology, which compromises user encryption.

If the bill is passed, Australian citizens could very well lose their online privacy. Not only does this have significant implications for the global blockchain community but for investors as well.

Blockchain and DApps are inseparable

Decentralized apps rely on blockchain technology and vice versa. It would be like trying to use the internet without using a website — DApps and the blockchain are the same as they complement each other.

Due to the functionality that DApps add to the blockchain, DApps will become the primary way people interact across the blockchain. As a result, the demand for DApp developers has been steadily rising with the average Silicon Valley blockchain engineer now earning approximately $158,000.

However, most developers are not familiar with the blockchain-specific coding languages that are required to build DApps. This creates huge obstacles for DApp development to become widespread across the developer community.

To solve this challenge, EOS protocol Regium provides software development kits (SDKs) for building on the blockchain. Using Regium SDKs, developers can build blockchain-based DApps using popular programming languages such as JavaScript, Go, C#, Java or Swift. As a result, programmers without blockchain development experience can readily build DApps.

However, if the Australian bill comes to pass, the very existence of decentralized apps — and the principles for which they stand for may be jeopardized.

DApps and legal compliance

Today, there are 1,945 DApps with approximately 12,900 daily active users according to the State of the DApps, a platform that tracks and updates DApp statistics daily.

Whilst DApp growth has seen a steady increase from 2017 to 2018, the bill threatens the very nature of decentralized application (DApp) development making it unclear how DApps could comply with Australia’s proposed new surveillance laws under the Assistance and Access bill.

For instance, consider a DApp like Blockstack that allows users to control their online data and privacy. How would Blockstack be able to comply with legislation for things like names and email addresses when the app is decentralized?

What would happen to a DApp if the majority of the network refuses to comply with a government’s request? Are all members of the blockchain in violation of the law? How can a government demand new features in a decentralized app? Does the new bill make DApps unlawful?

It is clear that if this bill passes, the regulation of DApps in Australia could expand to the Five Eyes (FVEY) alliance that comprises of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States sharing data intelligence.

Microsoft and Facebook respond to the bill

Microsoft, Facebook and some of the world’s largest technology companies came together and submitted a four-page notice to the Attorney General’s Department to oppose Australia’s bill through the Digital Industry Group Incorporated (DIGI).

The notice includes claims like “we continue to maintain that the current voluntary data breach notification arrangements are being put to good use by the Australian business community,” backed by data from the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner.

February 16, 2016, Apple CEO Tim Cook wrote an open letter to customers, warning them that the United States government demanded Apple to provide backdoor access to a shooter’s iPhone in San Bernardino, California. Apple refused, citing that this would open a Pandora’s box of surveillance.

Nobody can say for certain what will come next for this controversial surveillance bill. If it passes, this could create trouble for DApp developers, the blockchain community, investors and anyone who values their privacy — including those that haven’t started using DApps just yet.


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