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印度精英阶层Fintech覆盖率已达23%

近期,J.P.摩根的研究表明,印度金融科技公司已经成功俘获了该国占比23%的富裕精英阶层的芳心,而未来印度经济应向剩余的中、低产阶层靠拢。

这家美国银行的研究显示,最具潜能的中低收入人群占据了人口的47%,面向这些人群的市场存在极高的发展空间。

印度中低收入人群的平均收入从一天2美元(约13人民币)增至了10美元(约67人民币)。

研究还表示,中低收入群体中大约有3.47亿人口为城市居民,他们拥有智能手机,深谙互联网之道,同时经济独立,喜好便利,愿意为良好的服务消费。

当前,印度金融科技公司多为一线地区富裕技术人士的“专属”企业,已知的中低收入群体中有80%并没有接触过这些公司的服务。“尽管金融科技公司与投资人、企业之间在意识上存在着不可逾越的鸿沟,中低收入群体为金融科技公司、投资商、捐助方和企业这些不同类型的利益相关方提供了可观的契机。”

比起考虑支付能力,中产阶层更倾向于便捷、便利的生活方式。他们还会想方设法使用电子平台获得高效的金融服务,这些金融服务包括支付转账、信贷产品、保险储蓄以及投资。

不过,调查还强调,这个国家金融科技产业的发展存在极大的不平衡性。印度拥有大约1500家金融科技公司,其中82%聚集在德里、孟买和班加罗尔这三大创投圣地。投资项目上,支付和信贷最受投资者的青睐,储蓄、保险都与前者存在着不小的差距。总体而言,前十家金融科技公司掌握了75%的投资资产,同时,74%的投资都流进了支付和信贷领域。

包括印度保险和发展局IRDA以及印度证券交易委员会SEBI在内,一个由多家监管机构成员组成的印度储备银行RBI专家小组在近期提交的论文中写道,“目前,印度还有40%的人口没有办理过银行业务、享受过银行的服务,现金充斥着人们的日常生活,占据了他们87%的支付日常生活。对这个国家的金融服务科技创业公司而言,这种局面则意味着一个巨大的、未开发的市场。2018年,移动手机的使用率有望从当前的53%上升至64%,互联网的普及率也在稳步提升,从各方面来说,印度金融科技公司的增长潜力都是不容小觑的。”

值得注意的是,莫迪的平民金融计划(Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana)带动了110亿美元(约741亿人民币)储蓄金,印度自助团体也在2017年调动了25亿美元(约168亿人民币)。除此之外,微型企业的债务缺口预计达到了460亿美元(约3099亿人民币)。这些客观条件都为开拓中低收入群体市场打下了基础。

不过,金融科技公司在扩大用户群方面也遇到了许多困难。“处于早期阶段的金融科技公司在筹集投资资金上遭遇了瓶颈。投资者往往着眼于投资的单位经济效益,但中低消费市场似乎并不吃这一套。”

Fintechcompanies have succeeded to cater to only 23 per cent of the elite/affluent section of the Indian economy while a huge portion still remains untapped. The lower and middle income segment, which comprises 47 per cent of the population, remains a potential market, states a study supported by JP Morgan.

Fintechs have the opportunity to cater to the lower middle income (LMI) segment with an income ranging from $2 to $10 a day and constitute roughly 600 million people. Of this, 347 million can be successfully tapped. Individuals in this segment are mostly urban, smartphone and internet savvy, financially independent, prefer convenience and willing to pay for the services, the study said.

Currently, most fintechs serve the affluent, tech-literate customers in tier-I geographies, leaving over 80 per cent of the addressable LMI group untapped. “While the LMI segment offers sizeable opportunities for different stakeholders like fintechs, investors, donors and incumbents, there exists a significant disconnect between fintech and investors, and fintech and incumbents,” the study stated.

The LMI segment prefers convenience over affordability and struggles to adopt and use digital platforms to avail financial services. These financial services include payments and transfers, credit or loan products, insurance and savings and investments.

The study highlights the skewed nature of the fintech business in the country. There are 1,500 fintechs in India and 82 per cent of them are located in the three metros –– Delhi, Mumbai and Bengluru. Payments and credit have attracted the most attention, while savings and insurance remain far behind. About 75 per cent of investments are made in 10 fintechs and 74 per cent of the investments are made in credit and payments fintechs.

An RBI panel, comprising members from other regulatory bodies such as IRDAI and Sebi, has stated in a paper submitted recently that “India has a large untapped market for financial service technology startups as 40 per cent of the population are currently not connected to banks and 87 per cent of payments are made in cash. With mobile usage expected to increase to 64 per cent in 2018 from 53 per cent currently, and internet penetration steadily climbing, the growth potential for Fintech in India ..

The study points to the fact that $11 billion was mobilised in Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana and $2.5 billion by self help groups in 2017to indicate the potential for fintech companies in the LMI segment.

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