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爱沙尼亚:用一国电子身份撬动全球众筹产业发展

由爱沙尼亚政府发起的电子身份证让世界上的每个公民都有可能成为其电子居民。除此之外,它还有另外一个作用:可以为目前的众筹平台解决很多问题,并促进其发展。

电子爱沙尼亚-电子政府的领跑者

爱沙尼亚是一个仅有130万人口的小国家,却是电子政府的领跑者。例如,该国实行电子投票,通过电子签名签署的合同合法有效,文件签署量已经破亿;18分钟即可完成公司在线注册,市场使用率达98%;此外电子税务也发展迅速,95%的税单为在线填写。诸如此类的服务在爱沙尼亚还在不断增多。

从2015年5月15日起,世界各国居民都可以申请成为爱沙尼亚的电子公民。政府计划到2020年把其电子公民的总数扩展到1000万,并且还将为国际用户提供其他服务。这种电子身份证其实是一种高级别认证,所以在市场借贷在线融资平台、众筹及替代金融领域同样也可以发挥作用。

为众筹带来前景

这个由政府发放的电子身份证可以为众筹及其他融资平台解决很多问题,例如KYC规则(Know Your Customer,即“客户适合度”)、跨境投资及股权众筹中股东电子投票等。

电子身份证通过大使馆发放,人们需提供自己的护照及指纹。在此之前,政府会针对申请人进行背景核查。这种电子身份拥有最高等级的认证及安全保障,利用2048位公共密钥进行加密保护。

KYC规则

融资过程中,众筹平台需遵循KYC规则,即"客户适合度"(Know Your Customer)规则。也就是说,平台需要确认投资者及借款人的身份,防止出现洗钱、恐怖主义融资、金融诈骗及身份盗窃等问题。

这些事情如果由平台处理,不仅费时费力,而且价格不菲。尤其和跨境投资者合作时,程序更为繁琐。电子身份证项目可以让平台放心地把这些事交给爱沙尼亚政府处理。比如,政府能通过特定程序在四周以内完成验证,申请者只需为此一次性支付50欧元。当然,这些融资平台必须遵循所在国的KYC规则。

平台负责人需为此找到申请电子身份证的投资者,这也是平台内部程序的一部分。

简化跨境投资

KYC规则同样适用于投资者,而跨境投资的管理并不容易。由于电子身份已通过验证,所以用它来管理跨境投资就容易多了。如果能在2020年实现1000万用户的目标,那么这些人的投资会更加容易。他们是发起人,而且愿意尝试新的、更便捷的投资。

提升借贷平台借款人和放款人信任等级

由于电子身份的认证级别高,众筹平台如果把信息用于别的项目会产生更高等级的信任,比如提高投资收益,享受优惠利率。

为股权众筹的股东提供电子投票

另外一个值得关注的领域是电子签名。目前这一功能只是在爱沙尼亚应用比较广泛(使用总量已经超过了1亿次)。但是从2016年7月1日起,所有欧盟成员国都将承认电子签名和手写签名具备同等法律效力。

这为想要进行股东管理、召开股东会议及选举股东的股权众筹平台提供了发展机会。对于有很多小股东的公司来说,获得每个股东的反馈比较麻烦,也不太容易组织实时会议。

拥有电子身份证的股东可以随时随地投票。来自世界各地的股东们只要在本国大使馆通过申请,就可以获得电子身份证(包括电子签名)。

开放API

自落实以来,电子身份项目一直都希望能吸引更多的合作者及服务供应商。一款公开的API为用户提供了所有服务及众多支持,包括开发中心、维基指南等,人们还可以预定测试卡。项目团队已经把电子身份证应用到身份确认及电子投票中,他们正努力为其提供技术支持,以促进顺利实现。

The e-Residency project is an initiative of the Estonian government to offer every world citizen the possibility to become an e-Resident of Estonia. As a side effect they could solve a number of problems for current Crowdfunding platforms with this government backed e-identity program and boost the industry.

E-Estonia - Frontrunner in e-Government

This tiny country with a population of 1,3 million people is one of the frontrunners in e-Government with e-voting, signing a legally binding contract with a digital signature (over 100 million documents signed), starting a business online in 18 minutes (98% of companies registered online) and e-Tax for tax filling(95% filled online). The list of services you can use is growing rapidly within Estonia.

Since May 15, 2015 everyone can apply to become e-Resident of Estonia. The government plans to grow to 10 million e-Residents by 2020 and is looking to provide additional services for their international users of the e-Residency program. Because this program provides a very high authentication level, it is very interesting to use it by online financial platforms for marketplace lending, crowdfunding and other forms of alternative finance.

Possibilities for Crowdfunding

This government issued digital identity card can solve a number of problems for Crowdfunding and Alternative Finance platforms, such as KYC-regulations, cross-border investments and e-voting for shareholders in Equity crowdfunding projects.

The e-Residency card is distributed through embassies worldwide, where you have to authenticate yourself with your normal passport and provide fingerprints. Before that, the government already did a background check on the person applying. This gives the highest level of authentication and with the 2048-bit public key encryption, the card has the highest level of security possible.

KYC regulation

While working with investments, crowdfunding platforms are all obliged to comply to "Know Your Customer (KYC)" regulations. Platforms need to identify the identity of investors and people receiving the money to prevent money laundering, terrorist financing, financial fraud and identity theft.

This process is very costly and time-consuming for the platforms, especially working with cross-borders project owners. The e-Residency project gives the possibility to outsource these activities to the Estonian government. They have the processes and procedures in place to do that in less than 4 weeks. The applicant need to pay a one-time fee of 50 euro. As a platform you know sure you are compliant with the KYC regulations in your country.

A practical way of implementing this is to support the project owner looking for an investment to apply for e-Residency parallel and as part of your own intake procedure.

Cross border investments

KYC regulations also apply to investors and especially managing cross-border investments is difficult. With the e-Residency it is easier to manage these cross-border investments, because the authentication will be done already. With the expected growth to 10 million users in 2020 it will provide an easy way of investment for these investors. This is also an interesting group, because they are the innovators, and are more willing to test new investment opportunities, especially if it is easy to do.

Higher trust for lenders & borrowers on Lending platforms

The e-Residency is a strong way of authenticating, so if a crowdfunding platform shows this information next to the profile of the project, this can create a higher level of trust, resulting in easier raising of the investment and/or favorable interest rates.

Shareholder e-Voting for equity crowdfunding

One of the other interesting possibilities is the digital signature. Currently it is used mostly in Estonia (over 100 million times), but from July 1, 2016 the digital signature will be a legally equivalent to a handwritten signature in all member states in Europe.

This will create possibilities for equity crowdfunding platforms that are looking for ways to manage (large) groups of shareholders and need to organize shareholder meetings and voting. Especially with companies that have a lot of small shareholders, it can be troublesome to receive feedback from everyone and it will be difficult to organize a physical meeting.

With e-Residency the shareholders can vote when and from where they want. Shareholders from all over the world can use it, by applying for e-Residency and receiving the card (including digital signature) in an embassy in their own country.

Open APIs

From the start the e-Residency project is open to attract as many partners and service providers as possible. All services can be used by an open API and a lot of support is given, including a Development center, a Wiki guide and you can order test cards. Implementing the E-Residency card for authentication/identification and for E-Voting can already be done and the E-Residency team is more than willing to help with technical support and to promote the first implementations.


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评论

  • w
    w4ghr在 2015/09/12 19:31回复

    看的我好向往,我也想成为爱沙尼亚的电子居民,体验一把跨国投资的乐趣.

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李婷婷 | 未央团队特约译者

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