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Zidisha:专注发展中国家市场的P2P借贷平台

通过P2P模式,Zidisha将9个发展中国家的借款人与全世界投资者直接联系了起来。

美国的P2P借贷模式由来已久,甚至在Lending Club与Prosper出现之前就已经发展成型。这种类型的一对一贷款,通常被称为小额信贷。行业内的第一家公司Kiva于2005年成立,向世界各地提供小额贷款。但此后新公司不断出现,大家都在积极寻求小额信贷模式的进一步发展。

Zidisha最初是受到了Kiva的启发,后者将慈善理念添加到了P2P模式中。 2009年,Zidisha作为一家非营利性小额信贷公司正式亮相市场。他们相信,由于近年来发展中国家的技术改进,他们可以对于传统模式做出改进。

Zidisha平台有利于在发展中国家促进信贷,但他们的不同之处在于不使用银行中介机构。平台创始人Julia说,这样做的好处是双重的。舍弃银行中介,借款人和投资者可以直接联系。投资者可以直接留言给借款人,如果需要的话,借款人和投资者可以建立密切的私人联系关系。此外,这种模式也显著降低了借贷成本。Julia说,在Kiva和其他小额信贷机构,由于银行的介入,借贷利率通常在35%的范围内。在Zidisha,借款人只需支付5%的服务费以及与贷款规模匹配的保证金。

在Zidisha目前经营的地区中,由于有限的互联网访问技术,直接连接投资者和借款人的这种模式在2005年之前是不可想象的。但如今,即使是穷人也可以去网吧上网。借款人通过两种方式来到Zidisha。他们可以直接到该网站来,或者他们可以通过志愿者导师引荐而来。一个志愿者导师可以联系多达50个借款人,这里面包括了已经成功偿还借款的人。作为回报,导师获得一小笔信用额度奖金,也有机会更快地提高其信用额度。Julia指出,这种模式背后其实是一种社区精神,而上述激励措施更像是表达一种感谢,而不是将金钱作为唯一的关注点。导师可以充当当地的联络点,这样可以增加Zidisha的可信度,以此来获得其他本地借款人的支持。

Zidisha目前对于9个国家开放,其中包括印度尼西亚、海地以及7个非洲国家。借款申请过程类似于填写一份Facebook个人资料,但比这个内容再广泛一些。每一个借款人需要提供7个推荐人,平台在接到申请之后会短信联系这7个人。通过这种方式,Zidisha实际上是建立了一个社交图,看是否这些短信联系人已经在Zidisha上进行了贷款。贷款10美元开始,不收取任何费用,也没有保证金。借款人也可以选择50美元到150美元之间的贷款金额,但需要交纳一定的保证金,不过这份保证金可以在借款人没有尚未清偿贷款的任何时候撤回。只要借款人继续偿还贷款,并证明自己的偿还倾向,Zidisha就会逐渐增加借款人可以使用的信贷额度。借款人往往处于20多岁的阶段,因为这个年龄段的年轻人更精通技术。

还款日程安排由借款人自行设计,如果想要延长贷款期限的话不收取罚金。不过,大多数借款人还款速度都很宽,因为这样有助于他们将来获得更高的信贷额度。该平台目前的还款率在80%左右,其中不包括默认进行的保证金退款。在过去5年里,Zidisha已在促进了4.5亿美元的贷款。他们拥有4.5万名用户,其中包括1.6万名贷款人和2.9万名借款人。贷款人可从借款人的还款中收回本金,这些款项可以在Zidisha平台中再次借给其他借款人。

P2P贷款是一个很适合向全球推广的借贷模式,我们已经从Kiva何ZIdisha的实践经验中证实了这一点。Zidisha的项目让我们了解到,少量资金可以在发展中国家产生极大的作用。一些倾向于看到捐赠结果,以及想要独特方式回馈的人,可以考虑在Zidisha上出资贷款。

 

Zidisha connects borrowers from 9 developing countries directly to investors.

The peer to peer lending model has been around even before Lending Club and Prosper joined the scene in the US. This type of peer to peer lending, often called micro finance is what the general public is most aware of when you talk about p2p lending.  The first company, Kiva launched in 2005 to provide micro loans across the world, but since then a new company has emerged looking to further develop the micro finance model.

Zidisha was originally inspired by Kiva.org who popularized the concept of philanthropy through a peer to peer model. Zidisha, like Kiva is a non-profit micro finance company that launched in 2009. They launched believing that they could improve on the traditional model due to the increase of technology in developing countries in recent years. I spoke to Julia Kurnia, Founder of Zidisha to learn more about the platform and how they are helping borrowers access credit worldwide.

Zidisha’s platform facilitates loans to those in developing countries, but their differentiator is that they don’t use bank intermediaries. Julia stated that the benefits of this are twofold. By cutting out the bank intermediary, borrowers and investors can connect and interact directly. An investor can directly message the people that they have lent money to, leading to a closer relationship between borrowers and lenders if desired. This model also lowers the cost of borrowing significantly. Julia stated that it is common for interest rates to be in the 35% range on Kiva and other micro finance providers due to the bank intermediaries. On Zidisha, borrowers simply pay a 5% service fee and potentially a security deposit depending on loan size.

This model of directly connecting investors and borrowers wasn’t possible in 2005 due to the limited access to the internet in the countries that Zidisha now operates in. Julia noted that today even poor people can go to cyber cafes to access the internet. Borrowers come to Zidisha in two ways. They can come to the website directly or they can come via volunteer mentors. Volunteer mentors can refer up to 50 borrowers and consists of borrowers who have successfully repaid their loan. As a benefit, the mentor receives a small credit limit bonus and also has the opportunity to increase their credit limit faster than other borrowers. Julia noted that there is a community spirit behind this model and these incentives serve as more of a “thank you” than a motivator. The mentor serves as a point of contact that speaks the native language and also adds credibility to Zidisha as a way to access credit to other local borrowers.

Zidisha is currently open to 9 countries, 7 in Africa as well as Indonesia and Haiti. Julia said the borrower application process is similar to that of filling out a Facebook profile, but is a little bit more extensive. Every borrower provides 7 people as references who are contacted via text message. Using this approach, Zidisha can actually build a social graph to see whether those connected to the borrower have taken out a loan with Zidisha. Loans start at $10, with no fee and no deposit. Borrowers can also choose a loan amount between $50-$150 by putting down a security deposit which can be withdrawn any time the borrower doesn’t have an outstanding loan. As borrowers continue to repay loans and prove their propensity to repay, Zidisha will gradually increase the amount credit a borrower has access to. The borrowers tend to be in their twenties since borrowers this age are more tech-savvy.

The repayment schedule is designed by the borrower and there is no financial penalty to extend the loan term. Most borrowers however pay quickly since doing so will allow them to access larger loans in the future. The platform has seen a 80% repayment rate, which doesn’t include refunds from the security deposits held on defaults. Zidisha has facilitated $4.5 million in loans over the last 5 years. They have 45,000 users, of which are made up by 16,000 lenders and 29,000 borrowers. The lenders who invest receive principal only payments from the borrowers which can be recycled to other borrowers on the Zidisha platform.

The peer to peer lending model lends itself well as a way to provide access to credit across the world. We’ve seen this with Kiva and now with Zidisha. Looking at Zidisha projects you’ll see that a small amount of money can make a big difference for people in developing countries. Those who like to see the direct results of donations and want to give back in a unique way may want to consider lending on Zidisha.


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潘璠 | 未央团队未央编辑团队

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