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印度储备银行拟提高支付行业准入门槛

本月20日, BharatQR移动支付系统正式在印度上线。印度储备银行副行长R. Gandhi表示,随着印度逐步推进电子支付产业发展,必须加强市场监管,完善行业法律法规,对支付服务提供商资质进行严格把关。

针对印度的国内市场,有部分人认为,印度的支付产业正处于一个特殊的发展阶段,传统的许可证制度将严重束缚印度电子支付的发展。政府应该适当降低支付行业的准入门槛,制定统一的市场准入条件,凡是符合条件的金融科技公司都应获得政府授权向市场提供支付服务。

然而,Gandhi认为这种想法是十分"危险"的,甚至有可能将印度的支付行业发展引入歧途。他表示,尽管国内的支付产业发展仍处于起步阶段,但这并不意味着印度应该放松对市场的监管,恰恰相反,有关部门应当建立完善的市场准入机制,加强监管,确保印度支付产业从开始就处于正确的发展方向。

除了提供线下支付渠道,支付服务公司还有责任对公众在账户中的存款进行保管。有关部门需要将支付服务提供商纳入到“具有存款吸收业务的金融机构”进行监管。

Gandhi还表示,相较于Prepaid Payment Instrument (PPI)、Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS)、Trade Receivables Discounting System (TReDS)、 White Label ATMs (WLAs)等支付服务,印度民众更加青睐于银行推出的支付系统。

印度政府也一直鼓励具备资质的非银行实体进入支付行业,并且在各个环节中对银行与非银行实体实行一致对待原则。

此前,印度的一些移动支付公司曾向印度储备银行申请开户权,从而使其能够向用户提供个人账户。银行方面拒绝了该项申请,引发了强烈的社会抨击。对此,Gandhi称,只有具有银行资质的支付公司才能为用户开设个人账户,因此,支付公司行使银行职能前必须申请银行牌照。

BharatQR是一种由印度的国家支付公司(NPCI)、Mastercard 和Visa共同开发的支付方式,具有互操作性强、成本低等特点。

消费者在使用这种新型支付方式时,不必再为商户提供的不同支付网络下不同的二维码而发愁。商家只需展示一个二维码供消费者扫描即可。

Launching the BharatQR mobile payments acceptance system here on Monday, RBI Deputy Governor R. Gandhi said granting licences to payment service providers cannot be an automatic "tick box exercise" and such entities need to be selected as per proper selection criteria.

"There is an implied suggestion that this (payment) sector needs to be freed of licensing mechanism and once a set of criteria are fixed, any number of entities meeting those criteria should be allowed to function. We differ from this idea," Gandhi said launching the payments solution developed as per directions given by the Reserve Bank of India.

"Such a free entry may not be appropriate for payment industry. We must remember that the payment service provider is entrusted with money and therefore fit and proper criterion is of utmost importance and consequently, free entry based on tick box exercise will not be right and it can pose a risky proposition to the system as a whole," he said.

"When you keep the money of the public in 'account', you are a financial entity taking deposits and you must be public trustworthy and so be regulated as a deposit taking financial entity," he added.

Citing the examples of Prepaid Payment Instrument (PPI) issuers, Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS) operating units, Trade Receivables Discounting System (TReDS), White Label ATMs (WLAs) and other payment aggregators, Gandhi said there is a misconception that non-bank entities are being discriminated as compared to the banking entities in the payment system arena.

"We have been opening up the space and allowing entry to non-bank entities. At the origination, in between originating bank and destination bank and at the receiving end, there is no restriction for a non-bank entity to be present," he said.

Referring to criticism over RBI not allowing non-bank entities to keep bank accounts in a situation of mobile phone companies wanting to offer "account" based payment services, Gandhi said: "Our answer is simple. If you maintain an account, then you are a bank and you need a banking licence."

BharatQR is an inter-operable and low cost payment acceptance solution, developed by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), Mastercard and Visa.

With this new digital payments solution, consumers will not need to scan different quick response (QR) codes at the same merchant provided by the different payment networks. The merchants will only need to display one QR code at the storefront or through the acquiring bank's mobile application.


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