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国际资讯监管与政策

美国纽约州计划出台在线借贷市场新政

日前,美国纽约州正计划推出针对“银行发起”的在线贷款行业。而此前,已经有几个州采取了相似做法,而这一监管态势也开始变得越来越普及。

最近推出的纽约预算立法将修订《纽约许可贷款法》第340节,要求如果机构向纽约居民出售(但本身并不创设贷款)贷款同时又“购买或者以别的方式从他处获得贷款或其他形式的融资,亦或者安排、促进贷款的融资”的机构必须获得许可。根据现行的《许可贷款法》,只有那些实际”创设“贷款的机构需要获得许可。

《许可贷款法》规定,利息超过16%且本金为2.5万美元及以下的消费贷款或5万美元及以下的商业贷款须获得许可。违反《许可贷款法》的贷款是无效和不可执行的。因此,该修正案如果通过将迫使使用“银行起源”模式的在线借贷平台要么获得许可,抑或是将贷款重组以避免受该法管制(例如,提高本金数额或降低利率)。

提出该新提案的纽约跟随其他几个州——包括科罗拉多州、佛蒙特州和西弗吉尼亚州的步伐,试图规范“银行发起”的在线借贷行业。如果获得通过,修正案将于2018年1月生效。

纽约财经事务局局长Maria Vullo对美国货币监理署(OCC)发布的《金融技术章程》提出严厉批评之后不久,该“贷款许可法”的拟修正案就被提出。

New York is joining a small but growing list of states seeking to regulate the “bank-origination” method of online lending.

The recently introduced New York Budget legislation would amend Section 340 of the New York Licensed Lender Law to require licensing of entities that market (but do not originate) loans to New York residents if that same entity, in connection with such solicitation, also “purchases or otherwise acquires from others loans or other forms of financing, or arranges or facilitates the funding of loans.”1 Under the current Licensed Lenders Law, only those entities that actually “make” loans are subject to licensing.

The Licensed Lenders Law requires licensing for loans with an interest rate above 16% and in an original amount of $25,000 or less if made for consumer purposes, or $50,000 or less if made for commercial purposes. Loans made in violation of the Licensed Lender Law are void and unenforceable.2 Thus, for all practicable purposes, the amendment, if passed, would force online marketers using the bank-origination model either to become licensed, or to structure the loans such that the loans are exempt from the Licensed Lender Law (e.g., either by increasing the original principal balance or by reducing the interest rate) if the online marketer solicits into New York.

With the new proposal, New York follows several other states – including Colorado, Vermont, and West Virginia – in seeking to regulate the bank-origination model. If adopted, the amendment would take effect in January 2018.

The proposed amendment to the Licensed Lenders Law follows on the heels of a scathing criticism of the OCC’s “fintech charter” proposal issued by New York Department of Financial Services Superintendent Maria Vullo.


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