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互联网之父Tim Berners-Lee:人工智能恐将颠覆世界金融体系

自1956年达特茅斯会议诞生以来,"人工智能"已有60年的发展历史。而在近两年,随着大数据、云计算、深度学习的兴起,人工智能迎来了第三次发展高潮。尤其在2016年,AI技术的进步和大范围、多领域地渗入行业应用让其再次成为世界关注的焦点。随着AI被更广阔地应用到人类社会和经济生活各个方面,新的机遇和挑战随之而来。

在日前举办的全球金融创新峰会上,世界互联网之父Tim Berners-Lee爵士创造性地提出了一个假设,即当人工智能系统逐渐具备类似人类的决策能力时,世界金融市场发展的公平性和稳定性将受到极大的影响。

Tim Berners-Lee举例称,目前,金融市场中的部分借贷机构已经开始使用人工智能程序来处理全部的贷款发放流程。而在未来,金融机构的规划、成立、并购、组织结构调整等一系列的发展步骤都将由人工智能所控制。当人类在未来面对此类由人工智能运营的公司时,传统型金融机构将毫无优势可言,市场公平也将重新被定义。

2007年的次贷危机为世界金融市场带来了巨大的灾难,而目前人工智能浪潮所造成的影响则更甚于金融危机。它将改变金融机构的发展方式,并引发一系列的不公平现象,甚至有可能颠覆整个金融行业。

人工智能技术的反对者Elon Musk此前在接受 《名利场》采访时举例称,当人类利用人工智能技术进行草莓采摘时,程序将通过深度学习机制不断提高采摘效率,并将扩大草莓种植面积以提高采摘量,最终将导致草莓种植地遍布全世界,侵蚀人类的生活领域。

The architect of the world wide web Sir Tim Berners-Lee today talked about some of his concerns for the internet over the coming years, including a nightmarish scenario where artificial intelligence (AI) could become the new 'masters of the universe' by creating and running their own companies.

Masters of the universe is a reference to Tom Wolfe's 1987 novel The Bonfire of the Vanities, regarding the men (and they were men) who started racking up multi-million dollar salaries and a great deal of influence from their finance roles on Wall Street and in London during the computerised trading boom pre-Black Monday.

Speaking at the Innovate Finance Global Summit today, Berners-Lee envisioned a world where AI systems start to develop decision-making capabilities and the impact this will have on the fairness of our economic systems.

He laid out the scenario where AI could decide which companies to acquire and took this to its logical conclusion: "So when AI starts to make decisions such as who gets a mortgage, that's a big one. Or which companies to acquire and when AI starts creating its own companies, creating holding companies, generating new versions of itself to run these companies.

"So you have survival of the fittest going on between these AI companies until you reach the point where you wonder if it becomes possible to understand how to ensure they are being fair, and how do you describe to a computer what that means anyway?"

Although it's hard to imagine shedding too many tears over the loss of the decision makers responsible for the 2007 crash, the scenario does threaten to wipe out an entire industry and raises some serious questions about how fair a financial system without any human involvement can be.

This is similar to the fear laid out recently by AI-sceptic Elon Musk to Vanity Fair: "Let's say you create a self-improving AI to pick strawberries and it gets better and better at picking strawberries and picks more and more and it is self-improving, so all it really wants to do is pick strawberries. So then it would have all the world be strawberry fields. Strawberry fields forever." No room for human beings.


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