最有看点的互联网金融门户

最有看点的互联网金融门户
全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯基于互联网平台的金融业务

科技助推中国普惠金融进程

中国普惠金融进程中面临的最大挑战在于如何将金融服务拓展至私营企业及个人。

中国金融领域由国有商业银行主导,这类银行偏爱国有企业,导致金融体系失衡。

然而互联网技术的普及,尤其是其在移动设备的应用,正助力填补此空白。

网络金融增长迅猛,正成为传统金融体系的补充。如今商业银行也正布局金融科技,部分原因在于创建普惠金融的监管助推,还在于商业银行也需转变经营战略。

中国普惠金融增长卓著。波士顿咨询公司调查显示,如今中国普通成年人拥有5.36个金融账户。中国国内越来越多的交易以数字形式完成,支付宝、财富通等第三方支付企业增长迅猛。此类支付公司目前拥有4.75多亿用户,极大地提升了基础金融服务覆盖率。

在线财富管理领域也经理着类似的变革。例如,运营着支付宝的蚂蚁金服集团2013年推出了货币市场基金余额宝。余额宝目前达全球规模之最,用户超过3亿,在管资产逾8000亿人民币。然而其投资门槛仅为0.01热敏比,不到1美分。

借贷领域,除蚂蚁金服及腾讯量大巨头外,如今有数千家在线企业在此领域争奇斗艳,使借贷者借贷成本降低。2016年底,中国互联网金融额达1.16万亿人民币。这一数字值得关注,原因在于中国信用卡平均使用人数为0.29/人,而美国为3.4/人。

在线借贷增幅迅速,部分原因在于缺少政府监管,但这种状况正在发生改变。监管方目前正在介入,重点关注非法行为。该举应可助在线接待这一新兴行业以更为可持续的方式保持增长。

商业融资领域发展情形大抵类似。创新型企业正为未享受或未充分享受银行服务的私营中小企业服务。它们不仅直接向中小企业发放借款,还助其吸引出借人。例如,第三方支付企业拉卡拉帮助用户进行数据分析、风险管理、支付、获得价格合理的贷款融资,提升其交易效率。

中国对上述服务需求巨大,已成为风险资本投资热点。普华永道2016年一份报告显示,半数全球金融科技投资落户中国。

尽管此类创新型企业发展蓬勃,但其在中国只起到补充作用。中国传统商业银行总资产达200万亿人民币,在增强金融普惠性上潜力要大得多。且政府也在积极鼓励其超该方向迈进。

例如,2016年1月,中国中央政府最高权力执行机关国务院印发了名为《推进普惠金融发展规划(2016—2020年)》的指令。

与此同时,在2017年初召开全国人民代表及政治协商会议上,国务院总理李克强强调了大中型商业银行在推进普惠金融发展中的作用。李克强表示,要实现真正便捷可负担的金融, 政府必须出台支持此类银行的扶持性政策。因此,自2016年4月起,中国工商银行、中国银行等银行设立了普惠金融事业部。

政府的支持可能带来一定益处。中国银行业监督管理委员会推进农业金融等举措就获得了成功。前任中国人民银行金融消费权益保护局长焦瑾璞表示,中国普惠金融程度已在全球均值之上。成功越大,雄心就越大:中国政府如今并不仅仅鼓励扩大金融覆盖率,还更广一步,如建立渠道促进贫困地区IPO申请成型。

除政策鼓励外,商业银行推进普惠金融还出于竞争原因。若不转变营商行为促进普惠金融,就有可能在市场中受损。因此,商业银行日益与金融科技企业合作,从而更好地触达所享受金融服务欠佳的人群及地区。

2016年,建行与蚂蚁金服签署了一份具有里程碑意义的协议。现金,双方在在线金融服务、电子支付、信用评分等领域展开合作。

这些措施将使中国金融业更为繁荣,更为广阔。企业营商模式愈发多样,也将带来更多的产品与服务,惠及不断增长的用户群。在此拓展中,蚂蚁金服、腾讯等互联网巨头与领军商业银行均将发挥关键作用。

The biggest challenge facing China in its drive for financial inclusion has been how to expand banking services to private businesses and individuals.

The country’s financial sector is dominated by state-owned commercial banks, which favour state-owned enterprises. The system is imbalanced.

But the widespread adoption of internet-based technology, especially on mobile devices, is helping to close that gap.

Web-based finance is growing rapidly and is supplementing the traditional financial system. And now the commercial banks are getting in on the financial technology - fintech - act, too, partly due to the regulatory push for financial inclusion but also because of their need to transform their business strategies.

The growth in financial inclusion in China has been remarkable. According to a survey by the Boston Consulting Group, the average Chinese adult now has 5.36 financial accounts. And as more transactions within the Chinese economy take place digitally, third-party payment companies such as AliPay and TenPay have expanded rapidly. These companies now boast more than 475 million users, and have greatly increased the penetration of basic financial services.

Something similar is happening in online wealth management. For example, Ant Financial Group - which operates AliPay - established money market fund Yu’E Bao in 2013. It is now the world's largest, with more than 300 million users and total assets under management of over RMB800 billion. Its investment threshold, meanwhile, is only 0.01 RMB - that's less than one US cent.

As for lending, besides the two giants of Ant Financial and Tencent there are now thousands of online companies competing in this field - and that has led to lower costs for borrowers. Online financing reached RMB1.16 trillion by the end of 2016. That’s important because the average number of credit cards is still only 0.29 per person in China, compared with 3.4 per person in the United States.

The fast growth in online lending has been partially due to an absence of government regulation - but that is changing. The regulators are now stepping in with a focus on illegal activities, which should help the nascent industry continue its growth in a more sustainable way.

The story is the same in commercial financing. Innovative companies are serving unbanked, or underbanked, privately owned small and medium-sized enterprises. They are helping not just with direct lending, but also in making them more attractive to lenders. LaKala, for example, is a third-party payment company that helps firms improve their transaction efficiency with data analysis, risk management and payment, and with gaining access to affordable financing.

Because of the immense demand for these services, China has become a hotspot for venture capital. According to a PwC report in 2016, half of all global fintech investments were in China.

But even with their rapid growth, these innovative players still serve only a complementary role in China. The traditional commercial banks - with total assets between them of RMB200 trillion - have a far greater potential for improving financial inclusion, and the government has been actively encouraging them to move in this direction.

In January 2016, for example, the Chinese State Council (the central government’s chief administrative authority) released a directive entitled “The Plan of Promotions for Financial Inclusion (2016-2020).”

At the National People's Congress and the People's Political Consultative Conference in early 2017, meanwhile, the State Council’s Premier, Li Keqiang, emphasised the role of large and medium-sized commercial banks in promoting financial inclusion. To make financing truly accessible and affordable, he said, the government had to enact supportive policies for these banks. As a result, starting in April 2016, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), the China Banking Corporation (CBC), and other banks have created divisions focused on financial inclusion.

The government’s support is likely to be quite helpful. The China Banking and Regulatory Commission’s effort to promote agriculture financing, among other cases, has been regarded as a success.

According to Jiao Jinpu, former chief officer of the Central Bank’s Financial Consumer Protection Bureau, the level of financial inclusion in China is already above the global average. With this success has come expanded ambition: the government now encourages not just greater financial access but wider concepts, such as setting up channels to promote and enable initial public offering applications from poorer areas.

Besides this regulatory encouragement, commercial banks are promoting access and affordability for competitive reasons. If they don’t transform their business practices to promote inclusion, they may lose out in the marketplace. As a result, they are increasingly cooperating with fintech companies to better reach underserved groups and areas.

In 2016, CBC announced a landmark agreement with Ant Financial. The two companies are now cooperating in the areas of online-to-online financial services, electronic payments and credit scoring.

The result of all these efforts will be a richer and broader financial industry in China. The growing diversity of companies and business models means in turn a wider range of products and services are being offered to a larger user base. Both internet giants such as Ant Financial and Tencent, and the leading commercial banks, will play crucial roles in this ongoing expansion.


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