最有看点的互联网金融门户

最有看点的互联网金融门户
互联网经济传统金融的互联网化国际资讯基于互联网平台的金融业务

2017年新领军者年会:数字科技将助中国实现普惠金融

世界经济论坛2017年新领军者年会于6月27日正式在中国大连召开。政府、学校、协会等机构组织企业家代表团通过参会,充分了解全球最前沿的技术与商业模式创新,与各行业、政府领导人和国际机构的代表加强交流,分享自己的观点,提升企业形象,共同贡献社会。新领军者年会是世界经济论坛在全球范围内举行的最重要的国际性会议之一,又名"夏季达沃斯",该活动在中国已经成功举办十一届。

本次年会充分认识到了普惠金融在迈向创新、活力、联动、包容的经济发展过程中的关键作用,以及促进经济活动参与者之间有效联系的纽带地位。利用数字技术降低成本,扩大金融服务的覆盖面,深化金融服务的渗透率,将是促进普惠金融的关键。2016年,中国极大地影响并加快了数字技术的运用,以提高金融服务的可得性和包容性,从而有助于促进和推动国家层面主导的行动,这些行动在家庭、社区、国家和国际层面可产生深刻的社会和经济影响。

同时,会议指出,中国在推进普惠金融的过程中面临的最大挑战是如何真正使银行业务惠及中小企业和个人。目前,在中国的金融行业中,国有商业银行仍然处于不可撼动的地位,但银行的主要客户却是以国有企业为主。随着中小企业的迅速崛起,对金融服务的需求持续加大,使得我国的金融市场所呈现出的不平衡特点在不断加剧。

近年来,互联网技术在中国的普及,特别是移动互联技术的发展,为金融弱势群体获取金融服务提供了有效途径,同时,也在一定程度上弥补了传统金融业在新时期下的发展缺陷。在政策号召和技术进步的推动下,商业银行开始引入金融科技,积极谋求转型。

在政府和金融行业的共同努力下,中国在推动普惠金融的进程中取得了巨大成就。据波士顿咨询集团此前发布的研究报告显示,平均每个中国的成年人拥有5.36个财务账户。同时,随着中国经济数字化的趋势不断加强,以支付宝和财付通为代表的第三方支付公司开始崛起。据统计,中国的移动支付用户超过4.75亿,并且这一数字还在不断上涨,这大大加强了我国基础金融服务的渗透率。

此外,市场中还涌现出了一大批数字化资产管理公司。2013年,阿里巴巴旗下的蚂蚁金服正式推出货币投资基金余额宝,以低至0.01元人民币的投资门槛吸引了大量投资者。目前,余额宝的用户数量超过3亿,管理资产总额达到800亿元。

在网络借贷方面,除了蚂蚁金服和腾讯两大巨头外,国内目前有数千家网贷公司在分食这一市场,过度的竞争也导致了借款人的成本不断降低。截止至去年年底,中国网贷市场融资额达到1.16万亿元。

网贷市场的不断发展是对中国信用卡体系的有效补充。据统计,中国的信用卡普及率为29%,相对地,美国的信用卡普及率为34%。然而,值得注意的是,在我国网贷市场快速发展的背后,不完善的监管体制正在时刻威胁着市场的稳定发展。不过,进入2017年以来,中国人民银行、银监会等监管机构已经下发了一系列的文件,试图构建一个可预测的、以风险为导向的、公平的法律监管框架,目的在于允许有新进入者,却不过度增加非风险导向的合规成本,从而促进新兴金融行业的可持续发展。

在为个体借贷活动提供便利的同时,数字普惠金融也极大的提高了中小企业的融资效率。目前,部分金融科技企业已经推出了专门针对无银行账户的中小企业的金融服务,不仅为它们提供直接贷款,还对它们的财务情况和融资模式进行指导,协助它们获得长期稳定的融资。作为首批获得央行颁发第三方支付牌照的综合金融服务平台,LaKala致力于为中小企业提供数据分析、风险管理等服务,提高企业运作效率,扩大融资渠道。

中小企业的迅速发展产生了对金融服务的巨大需求,使得中国当前世界上吸收风险投资能力最强的国家。据普华永道在去年发布的报告显示,2016年全球一半以上的金融科技领域投资投涌向中国。

然而,需要承认的是,尽管金融科技行业在中国呈现出了不可阻挡的发展态势,但在推行普惠金融的进程中,商业银行仍然发挥着主导作用。目前,我国商业银行的总资产超过200亿美元,在发展数字普惠金融方面仍具有极大的潜力。

一直以来,中国政府也积极制定政策,鼓励商业银行开展相关业务。2016年1月,国务院下发了"关于实现普惠金融的指导意见(2016-2020)",今年年初,国务院总理李克强在"两会"上再次强调了商业银行在发展数字普惠金融方面的作用,并且承诺政府将在2017年出台相关支持性政策,协助商业银行逐步上线数字金融产品。在政府的号召下,自去年4月份开始,以中国工商银行和中国银行为代表的商业银行纷纷设立了专门从事数字普惠金融的事业部。

除此之外,农村作为普惠金融的重点推进地区,也越来越多地受到了金融机构的关注。对此,中国人民银行金融保障部前部长表示,中国数字普惠金融的发展水平已经远远高于了世界平均水平。在下一阶段,政府需要做的不仅仅是鼓励金融资源更多的向农村地区倾斜,还要推行含义更为深刻的普惠金融概念,例如建立金融服务渠道、协助贫困地区企业完成上市等。

除了政策因素外,日益激烈的市场竞争也在驱动着商业银行转变发展模式。以往被传统金融行业所忽视的用户体验等因素正在被越来越多的商业银行所重视。部分商业银行选择了与金融科技公司建立合作,以弥补科技上面的劣势和扩大用户市场。2016年,中国建设银行宣布与蚂蚁金服达成战略合作,共同推进在电子支付、信用评级、在线金融服务等方面的产品研发。

随着越来越多的银行选择与金融科技公司建立合作,我国逐渐形成了参与主体更加丰富,服务范围更加广泛的多层次金融市场。在这个过程中,不断涌现出来的先进的金融科技和产品不仅将为消费者的生活提供极大的便利,也有利于提高中国在世界金融市场的竞争力。而蚂蚁金服、腾讯等互联网巨头和大型商业银行无疑将在这一过程中发挥巨大作用。

The biggest challenge facing China in its drive for financial inclusion has been how to expand banking services to private businesses and individuals.

The country’s financial sector is dominated by state-owned commercial banks, which favour state-owned enterprises. The system is imbalanced. But the widespread adoption of internet-based technology, especially on mobile devices, is helping to close that gap.

Web-based finance is growing rapidly and is supplementing the traditional financial system. And now the commercial banks are getting in on the financial technology - fintech - act, too, partly due to the regulatory push for financial inclusion but also because of their need to transform their business strategies.

The growth in financial inclusion in China has been remarkable. According to a survey by the Boston Consulting Group, the average Chinese adult now has 5.36 financial accounts. And as more transactions within the Chinese economy take place digitally, third-party payment companies such as AliPay and TenPay have expanded rapidly. These companies now boast more than 475 million users, and have greatly increased the penetration of basic financial services.

Something similar is happening in online wealth management. For example, Ant Financial Group - which operates AliPay - established money market fund Yu’E Bao in 2013. It is now the world's largest, with more than 300 million users and total assets under management of over RMB800 billion. Its investment threshold, meanwhile, is only 0.01 RMB - that's less than one US cent.

As for lending, besides the two giants of Ant Financial and Tencent there are now thousands of online companies competing in this field - and that has led to lower costs for borrowers. Online financing reached RMB1.16 trillion by the end of 2016. That’s important because the average number of credit cards is still only 0.29 per person in China, compared with 3.4 per person in the United States.

The fast growth in online lending has been partially due to an absence of government regulation - but that is changing. The regulators are now stepping in with a focus on illegal activities, which should help the nascent industry continue its growth in a more sustainable way.

The story is the same in commercial financing. Innovative companies are serving unbanked, or underbanked, privately owned small and medium-sized enterprises. They are helping not just with direct lending, but also in making them more attractive to lenders. LaKala, for example, is a third-party payment company that helps firms improve their transaction efficiency with data analysis, risk management and payment, and with gaining access to affordable financing.

Because of the immense demand for these services, China has become a hotspot for venture capital. According to a PwC report in 2016, half of all global fintech investments were in China.

But even with their rapid growth, these innovative players still serve only a complementary role in China. The traditional commercial banks - with total assets between them of RMB200 trillion - have a far greater potential for improving financial inclusion, and the government has been actively encouraging them to move in this direction.

In January 2016, for example, the Chinese State Council (the central government’s chief administrative authority) released a directive entitled “The Plan of Promotions for Financial Inclusion (2016-2020).”

At the National People's Congress and the People's Political Consultative Conference in early 2017, meanwhile, the State Council’s Premier, Li Keqiang, emphasised the role of large and medium-sized commercial banks in promoting financial inclusion. To make financing truly accessible and affordable, he said, the government had to enact supportive policies for these banks. As a result, starting in April 2016, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), the China Banking Corporation (CBC), and other banks have created divisions focused on financial inclusion.

According to Jiao Jinpu, former chief officer of the Central Bank’s Financial Consumer Protection Bureau, the level of financial inclusion in China is already above the global average. With this success has come expanded ambition: the government now encourages not just greater financial access but wider concepts, such as setting up channels to promote and enable initial public offering applications from poorer areas.

Besides this regulatory encouragement, commercial banks are promoting access and affordability for competitive reasons. If they don’t transform their business practices to promote inclusion, they may lose out in the marketplace. As a result, they are increasingly cooperating with fintech companies to better reach underserved groups and areas.

In 2016, CBC announced a landmark agreement with Ant Financial. The two companies are now cooperating in the areas of online-to-online financial services, electronic payments and credit scoring.

The result of all these efforts will be a richer and broader financial industry in China. The growing diversity of companies and business models means in turn a wider range of products and services are being offered to a larger user base. Both internet giants such as Ant Financial and Tencent, and the leading commercial banks, will play crucial roles in this ongoing expansion.


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