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新加坡央行披露区块链项目最新研发细节

新加坡金融管理局(央行)公布了通过分布式账本技术连接世界各国央行的三步走计划。

该项目被称为“Project Ubin”,旨在让全球央行通过一条区块链进行实时的跨境交易。

不同于现有的系统(其中只有高价值或高重要性的交易能够实时结算),Ubin项目的设计,旨在让每一笔跨境支付及证券结算实现近乎瞬时。

通过代币化全球货币,并使用零知识证明来保护每一笔交易的隐私。目前有关研究人员正在积极探索英特尔的软件保护伸展(SGX)技术或其他手段,这个自动执行的智能合约新系统,将同时提高国际交易的速度及隐私性。

项目历史

Ubin项目的第一阶段在2016年12月23日完成的,其于2017年3月9号正式被公布,项目的白皮书详细介绍了合作的结果,

这份由德勤合著的长达44页的白皮书,详细叙述了Ubin项目使用分布式账本技术来代币化新加坡元(SGD)的进展。具体来说,该论文解释了当局从R3与加拿大银行之间的Jasper计划所得到的经验教训。

论文还展示了新加坡央行的高价值及紧急转移系统(称为MEPS+)链接到实时结算系统 (RTGS) 、增加不同在线钱包间资金转移率的可能性。

寻找解决方案

目前Ubin项目的第二阶段正在进行中。

新加坡央行代表表示,该行目前的首要任务是改进现有系统的交易结算方式。

这个过程被称为“僵局决议”(gridlock resolution), 其要求单个央行方对所有交易拥有整体看法,以找到净总数。但如果Ubin项目的第二阶段最终能够成功,这一切可能都会发生改变。

该项目的第二阶段被分为了三个步骤,目前正在进行中的第一步是仔细研究智能合约的机制。

据悉,一个由八位兼职人员及两位全职实习生组成的团队正在探索使用零知识证明,安全多方计算(例如麻省理工学院的Enigma项目),英特尔的软件保护伸展(SGX)技术以及微软的cryptlets来试验项目可行性。

如果成功的话,项目的第三步将最终扩至发行央行数字货币,甚至扩展到其他的央行。

The Monetary Authority of Singapore has revealed a three-step plan to connect the world’s central banks via distributed ledger technology.

The two-phase effort called "Project Ubin"would see global central banks settling cross-border transactions in real time via a blockchain.

Unlike the current system, where only high-value or institutionally crucial transactions are settled in real time, Project Ubin is being designed to let make every cross-border payment and security settlement almost instant.

By tokenizing global currencies and protecting the privacy of each transaction using zero-knowledge proofs, Intel’s software guard extensions, or other means currently being explored, the new system of self-executing smart contracts could increase both the speed and privacy of international transactions.

But Project Ubin – built in partnership with banking consortium R3 and banks including Bank of America Merrill Lynch, Credit Suisse, JPMorgan and Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group – is about more than just remittances.

History of the project

The first phase of the six-week project concluded December 23, 2016, and was formally announced on March 9, 2017, with the publication of a white paper detailing the results of the partnership.

Co-authored by Deloitte, the 44-page white paper, recounted Project Ubin’s strides towards tokenizing the Singaporean dollar (SGD) using distributed ledger technology. Specifically, the paper explained how lessons learned by R3 during a similar effort with Canada, called Project Jasper, were employed to build an ethereum-based prototype.

The paper shows how the system for the Monetary Authority of Singapore’s high-value and urgent transfers, called MEPS+, can be linked to the real-time gross settlement system (RTGS) to increase money transfer efficiency between different participant’s online wallets.

In search of solutions

Phase two of the project is now underway.

Designed to further research the prototype, the specific aim is now to improve how transactions are settled compared to the current system, where they are queued and periodically netted using "classical algorithms," according to a representative of the Monetary Authority.

The process, called "gridlock resolution," requires that a single central party have an overarching view of all the transactions to find the net sum. But if phase two of Project Ubin is ultimately successful, that could all change.

This second phase is divided into three steps. Now underway, step one involves a closer look at the mechanics of smart contracts, according to the representative.

To bridge the gap between the promise of distributed ledger technology to privately settle transactions in gross – or real time, as opposed to netting periodically – a team of eight part-time staffers and two full-time interns is exploring the use of zero-knowledge proofs, secure multi-party computation like MIT's Enigma Project, Intel's software guard extension (SGX) technology and Microsoft's cryptlets.

The second step of Project Ubin's current work is to identify how the platform can be integrated with various central securities depositories, including Singapore's own SGX, which is overseen by the Monetary Authority.

If that is successful, step three would eventually extend the digital bank issued cryptocurrencies even further to other central banks.


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