迪拜、新加坡、瑞士楚格等地正努力脱颖而出。目前来看,有区块链界"加密谷"之称的楚格抢得了一线先机,这个瑞士小镇已经成为了加密动力源以太坊、ShapeShift, Xapo、Tezos、Melonport、Monetas多种系统的摇篮。

楚格税率极低(为瑞士26个行政区中第五低),商业环境良好,监管环境宽松。此外,瑞士在竞争力与生产率方面位列全球第一,在吸引与存留人才方面也高居榜首。两相结合造就了完备的生态系统,比如MME成为了很多ICO法务方面的首选机构,而Bitcoin Suisse则协助ICO机构累计融资6.35亿美元。楚格当地政府也积极采取行动,比如允许居民利用比特币支付某些服务,还有在近期宣布发起以太坊区块链数字ID计划。



1. 很多人都在积极思考区块链在商业、政府与社会方面的意义。楚格政府与商界领袖也表示,他们对区块链技术也并未十分了解。他们只是借助了楚格政府对此技术的全面支持与极佳的营商环境,争取走在区块链研究的前沿。虽然当地政府在努力推动比特币支付业务,但是事实上真正试用这个服务的总人数也只有12个。

2. 加密货币掘金潮正在上演,但主流状况远无法确定。瑞士的商业活动受瑞士金融市场监督管理局(the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority,FINMA)监管,然而加密货币企业无须申请特殊许可或执照。根据该法规,加密货币属资产而非证券。这使得瑞士全国与生态体系完备的楚格对创企尤具备吸引力。


3. 建立生态系统势在必行。话虽如此,但是整个系统的建立需要各种辅助服务的支持。同时,生态系统打造者还要对该生态系统所处的社会大环境限制有所了解。瑞士的移民政策与高生活成本使在该地区迁址或设立大型企业颇具挑战。因此虽然楚格对以加密货币创企来说是颇具吸引力,但却并不是大批员工入驻的理想选择。

加密谷协会介入正是出于此中考量。协会成立不到一年,有16名创立成员,如Thomson Reuters(在楚格设有创新中心)、iProtus、Hochschule Luzern、PWC、Inacta、Consensys等。加密谷协会由UBS前任CIO Oliver Bussman领导,在创企入驻、投资、监管政策等方面均设有工作组,旨在为期望在楚格开始公司的个人与企业简化程序。此外,加密货币协会力图通过每月4-5次的活动与简报向政府官员与社会民众传播成为世界级区块链辖区的裨益。


The proliferation of blockchain startups and their mammoth ICOs show there's a lot of interest in decentralizing applications and services. And though it's an oxymoron, we're now seeing a few "centers" of "decentralization" emerging - a handful of cities engaged in serious jurisdictional competition to become the prime innovation hub for blockchain-based technologies.

Places like Dubai, Singapore, and Zug, Switzerland are making efforts to position themselves in the lead, but Zug, known in blockchain circles as "Crypto Valley," is currently the perceived leader. It is the home for crypto-powerhouses Ethereum, ShapeShift, Xapo, Tezos, Melonport, and Monetas, among numerous others.

With currency so central to blockchain tech and regulation still up in the air, it makes sense that Switzerland would attract a lot of early movers in this space. And Zug has very low tax rates (the fifth lowest among Switzerland's 26 cantons), a pro-business/growth outlook, and a regulatory environment that allows for the establishment of foundations that can be the designated recipient of ICO contributions. The fact that Switzerland is ranked first in the world for competitiveness and productivity and first in the world for attracting and retaining talent also serve as an advantage.

This combination has spawned an entire ecosystem of supporting entities such as MME, the law firm of choice for many ICOs, and Bitcoin Suisse, which has facilitated over $635 million in ICOs. The local government has even gotten into the act, making it possible for citizens to pay for some services in Bitcoin and recently announcing a Digital ID initiative running on the Ethereum blockchain.

To get a close-up look at how the ecosystem and regulatory environment in Zug is evolving, I took a trip there last month with a group of 34 other blockchain enthusiasts.

Here are some of the key lessons I came away with:

1. If you're confused by what blockchain means for business, government, and society, you're not alone. Even the most advanced jurisdiction in the world is still figuring it out. The government and business leaders in Zug are very transparent about the fact that they don't have all the answers. They are just moving as fast as anyone to figure them out, leveraging the fact that Zug's cantonal government is fully supportive of the initiatives and very pro-business. Though much was made about the citizens of Zug being able to pay for services with Bitcoin, the reality is that only 12 (that's right, 12) have actually done so.

2. The Crypto Gold Rush is happening, but mainstreaming is far from a certainty. In Switzerland, business is regulated by the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority, (known as FINMA), but cryptocurrency companies do not require any specific approval or license. Under that law, cryptocurrencies are assets rather than securities. This makes Switzerland, in general, and Zug because of its established ecosystem, particularly attractive to startups.

At the same time, traditional Swiss banks are still leery. Many of them have felt the sting of foreign, particularly US, legal and regulatory impact in pursuit of "Know Your Customer" (KYC) and "Anti-Money Laundering" (AML) violators. From what we heard, there are approximately five Swiss banks that blockchain startups can consistently rely upon. One expert I spoke to advised somewhat jokingly, "Don't mention bitcoin" when talking to banks.

3. You need an ecosystem. But that's easier said than done. It will take an entire range of auxiliary services to support the more agile, more nimble, and flatter organizations of the the future. At the same time, ecosystem builders have to be aware of the constraints of the larger society in which they are located. Switzerland's immigration policy and high cost of living make it a very challenging place to relocate to and to set up a large business in. Immigration policies are up to each canton, but the numbers are capped, and there's a waiting list logjam. So, despite its status as a gravitational center for cryptocurrency-based startups, Zug doesn't currently seem an ideal location for companies needing to onboard a huge workforce.

But that's where the Crypto Valley Association has stepped in. Founded within the past year, this consortium of 16 founding members includes Thomson Reuters (which has a global innovation hub in Zug), iProtus, Hochschule Luzern, PWC, Inacta, and Consensys. It is led by the former CIO of UBS, Oliver Bussman, and has established working groups on startup onboarding, investments, regulatory policy, and more, all with the goal of simplifying the experience for people and companies looking to set up shop in Zug. At the same time, through their 4-5 events per month and their newsletter, they seek to educate government officials and the larger society about the benefits of becoming a world-class jurisdiction for blockchain technologies.

Why Zug is important to watch

It's hard to predict how blockchain and decentralization technologies will impact our world. What Zug provides is a microcosm for how business, society, and government interact with each other as this technology makes landfall. Many of the lessons and experiments happening in Zug will be informative to the rest of the world as we begin to encounter the vast changes that crypto will bring.







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