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澳洲比特币监管法案获议会批准,规定严苛引争议

本周,澳大利亚政府在反洗钱(AML)和反恐融资(CTF)立法方面取得新进展,新法案将首次把比特币交易所纳入澳大利亚法律监管范围。按照法案要求,交易所的监管将交由该国金融情报机构及监管部门——澳大利亚交易报告和分析中心(AUSTRAC)——负责。

数字货币交易所监管的具体细则是:

该法案将授权AUSTRAC负责人“制定规则来扩展或缩减数字货币定义的适用范围”。

  1.  一旦发现未经注册的交易所,其运作者将面临民事处罚,且需承担严格的责任。
  2. -用于监管数字货币交易所的新的服务和登记系统将会在法案生效后的6个月内推出。

委员会提出的监管内容基于现有法律、并在澳大利亚司法部在协助下完成的。

不过,法律委员会则对这场为期6个月的改革表示了担忧。立法委员会希望该项法案能免于对比特币交易所中交易额小于1000美元的“低价值”交易的监管。除了严格责任犯罪之外,交易所的严重违规将导致运营者面临2到4年,甚至是7年时间的监禁,立法委员会认为这一规定“太过严苛”。

澳大利亚比特币初创公司Living Room of Satoshi也对这个法案表示了担忧。这家支付公司能够用比特币结算用户的日常账单。自2014年创立以来,该公司已经实现迅速发展,目前,他们用比特币处理的日常账单金额已经达到了500万美元。这个比特币初创公司呼吁低于1000美元的小额数字货币支付不受监管。

不过,委员会最终的建议仍然是通过这项法案。

Australian authorities are making progress with revisions to the AML/CTF bill which will include bitcoin exchanges under the scope of Australian legislation for the first time.

The Australian Parliament published newly updated provisions today, part of a wider reform of the government’s anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism financing (AML/CTF) laws. In it, the Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee has prioritized the regulation of digital currency exchange operators, among other objectives, under the purview of the Australian Transactions and Reporting Analysis Centre (AUSTRAC), the country’s financial intelligence agency and watchdog.

The highlights specific to digital currency exchanges are:

The bill will enable new powers conferred on AUSTRAC’s chief executive, enabling the official to “make rules to expand or narrow the scope of the digital currency definition.”

  1. A number of civil penalties will be introduced for unregistered operators of digital currency exchange services, all of which are subject to strict liability.
  2. A new designated service and register to regulate digital currency exchanges will be established within six months of the bill’s legislation.

The committee’s approach to regulation is aided by a review of the current law, complete with recommendations by the Attorney-General’s Department (AGD).

Citing some concerns toward the six-month timeframe for reforms is the Law Council, which called for guidance on possible exemptions for ‘low value’ transactions below $1,000 at bitcoin exchanges. The Law Council also called the notion imprisonment due to aggravated offences, aside from strict liability offences, between 2-4 years and even up to 7 years in extreme cases as “draconian”.

Pointedly, today’s report pointed to concerns from Australian bitcoin startup Living Room of Satoshi, a payments company that enables Australians to settle their bills with bitcoin. The startup has seen meteoric growth, processing $5 million in household bills with the cryptocurrency since its launch in April 2014.

The bitcoin startup called for an exemption from regulation for low-value payments made with digital currencies under $1,000.

Ultimately, the committee recommended the bill be passed.


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