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区块链国际资讯

美国:区块链已渗透应用于多个政府部门

一直以来,美国政府都在积极衡量区跨链技术的发展,并先后与企业、其他国家以及教育机构共同资助、协调、合作创新技术和科技进步。知识产权(IP)的合同、交易和记录是美国经济、法律和政治体系的重要组成部分。而管理这些知识产权的政府机构需要跟上经济的数字化转型。而区块链技术如今就成为了美国政府眼中正提高行政透明度、效率性和领域信息共享的一次有益尝试。美国政府认为,可能应用到区块链技术的领域包括:

  1. 财务管理
  2. 采购
  3. IT资产和供应链管理
  4. 智能合约
  5. 专利、商标版权、特许权使用费
  6. 政府签发的证件,如签证、护照、SSN和出生证明
  7. 联邦人力劳动力数据
  8. 拨款
  9. 联邦援助和外援交付

据悉,目前区块链技术已经深入渗透和应用到了多个政府部门和机构。其中就包括:

总务管理局

总务管理局(GSA)的新兴公民科技办公室为有兴趣探索区块链技术的联邦机构和美国企业推出了美国联邦区块链计划目前,GSA已经使开始利用区块链技术来自动化并加速其对FASt Lane计划的合同审查。

美国财政部

财政部正在运行一项试点计划,来决定区块链技术是否可以用于供应链管理,以加快处理时间、提高效率并加强私营部门的财务控制。

美国财政部长Steven Mnuchin参与了2018年达沃斯论坛区块链小组讨论。他认为,与外国投资者建立公私合作(PPP),在不产生额外的债务的情况下为特朗普的公共基础设施计划提供资金,这将是实现为美国道路、桥梁、机场和其他公共工程进行升级承诺的关键。这不仅可以刺激经济增长,而且能够将大量的资金风险转嫁给私营部门。

PPP通常需要有一个政府机构参与,来鉴别潜在的项目,以确定该项目有足够盈利的潜力来吸引投资者,征集有竞争性的投标,然后选择一个或多个私营部门来对该项目进行设计、融资、建设、运营和维护。在一个PPP项目中,政府在总体上拥有该项目,但在进行开发和运营时赋予私营部门重要的权力。

财政部还采取措施完善基于区块链的加密货币“反洗钱/打击恐怖主义融资(AML / CFT)”法律,并与金融机构形成公私合作关系(PPP),来共享信息。

美国国务院

美国国务院强调创新对世界经济发展的重要性,并鼓励与目前使用区块链技术的私营部门合作伙伴进行对话。

政府采购在全球经济中的重要组成部门,占全球国内生产总值的20%,约合9.5亿美元公共资金。来自经济合作与发展组织的一项研究显示,腐败消耗了其中的20%到25%,每年约为20亿美元。这占据了纳税人的很大一部分资金,并且仍然是政府活动中最容易浪费、欺诈和腐败的部分。腐败扭曲了合同的公平授予,降低了基本公共服务的质量,限制了有竞争力的私营部门的发展机会,并破坏了对公共机构的信任。

如今,世界各国都将技术创新置于公共采购的核心位置,将采购重塑为收入增长、国家竞争力和改善健康、经济福利和整体生活质量的战略工具。目前,已有四十多个国家制定了国家创新战略和/或启动了国家创新基金会。这些国家正在放松外国直接投资的限制,提供资金、融资、利用公私合作、减免税收,并要求境外的私营部门对其国家作出承诺。在最大限度地提高外国开发/援助的影响力和责任感的同时,区块链技术还可以解决资金流程中的资金腐败、欺诈或挪用问题以及效率低下的问题。

美国国防部

正如在2017年12月12日签署生效的《2018年国防授权法案(HR 2810)》所反映的那样,美国联邦政府及其机构在仔细研究了新的分布式账本技术会造成的风险之后,正在探索在各个领域中采用区块链技术。这次评估将向联邦政府和国防部揭示区块链技术在IT环境中的功能。

美国国土安全部

国土安全部(DHS)奖励了“小企业创新研究”,为其提供资金以开发区块链技术在边界安全方面的作用。

美国国家航空航天局

高效的通信系统和有效的计算技术对于确保NASA每个任务的成功至关重要。预计通过区块链技术可以更好地整合载人和无人太空飞行的数字信息和成本效益技术。美国宇航局向俄亥俄州阿克伦大学提供的一笔新的资金,这笔资金将用于资助研究在以太坊区块链网络上运行的深度学习人工智能技术以及在多种空间通信环境中开发弹性网络和计算范式。

结论

区块链并不是数字政府的灵丹妙药,但是随着这项技术的更广泛应用,它可能代表着智能法律合同的未来,也代表着与美国政府合作的整个行业如何能以更透明和精简的方式来进行自我管理。

The US government have been evaluating Blockchain technology since they have funded, collaborated and partnered with business, other countries as well as educational institutions in fostering and continuously developing innovative technologies and science. Contracts, transactions and the records of intellectual property (IP) are among the defining structures of the US economic, legal and political system. And the government agencies formed to manage them need to keep up with the economy’s digital transformation. Accordingly, Blockchain technology is under evaluation or is being implemented by several US government agencies to improve transparency, efficiency and trust in information sharing in:

  1. Financial management
  2. Procurement
  3. IT asset and supply chain management
  4. Smart contracts
  5. Patents, Trademarks Copyrights, Royalties
  6. Government-issued credentials like visas, passports, SSN and birth certificates
  7. Federal personnel workforce data
  8. Appropriated funds
  9. Federal assistance and foreign aid delivery

The General Services Administration (GSA)

GSA’s Emerging Citizen Technology Office launched the US Federal Blockchain program for federal agencies and US businesses that are interested in exploring Blockchain technology and its implementation within the US government. So far, GSA has used Blockchain to automate and speed up contracts review for its FASt Lane program.

Department of Treasury

The Treasury Department is running a pilot program to determine whether Blockchain technology can be utilized for supply chain management, which has accelerated, processing times, created efficiencies and strengthened financial controls in the private sector.

The Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, who sits on a Davos Blockchain panel, believes that forming public-private partnerships (PPP) with foreign investors to fund Trump’s public infrastructure plan without incurring additional debt will be key to fulfilling the promise to upgrade US roads, bridges, airports and other public works. It will stimulate the economic growth with the aim of passing on substantial risk of funding to the private sector.

PPPs typically involve a government agency identifying a potential project, determining that there is sufficient revenue potential from the project to attract investor interest, soliciting competitive bids, and then selecting one or more private sector entities to design, finance, build, operate and maintain the project. In a PPP, the government generally owns the project but grants the private sector significant authority over its development and operation.

“Working with foreign investors is going to be a critical part of any plan we put forward and public-private partnerships are crucial to ensuring that the American taxpayer does not bear the full cost of any proposed program," Mnuchin explained.

The Treasury Department has also undertaken initiatives to improve the "anti-money laundering/combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT)” laws for Blockchain based cryptocurrencies and formed PPPs with financial institutions, to share information.

US State Department

The US State Department underscores the importance of innovation in world economic development and encourages dialogue with the private sector partners currently using Blockchain technology.

“The State Department supports public-private-partnerships. For example, in maximizing the impact and accountability of foreign development/assistance, Blockchain technology by bringing transparency, may address corruption, fraud or misappropriation of funds and inefficiencies within the public procurement funding process itself,” explained Deputy Secretary John J. Sullivan.

Government procurement accounts for a substantial part of the global economy 20 percent of GDP or around $9.5 tln of public money. According to an OECD study, corruption drains off between 20 and 25 percent or around $2 tln annually.  It accounts for a substantial portion of the taxpayers’ money and remains the government activity most vulnerable to waste, fraud and corruption due to the size of the financial flows involved. Corruption distorts the fair awarding of contracts, reduces the quality of basic public services, limits opportunities to develop a competitive private sector and undermines trust in public institutions.

Countries around the world are putting technological innovation at the heart of public procurement, to reshape procurement into a strategic tool for income growth, national competitiveness and improvements in the health, economic well-being and overall quality of life.  More than four-dozen countries have created national innovation strategies and/or launched national innovation foundations. These countries are relaxing foreign direct investment constraints, providing funding, financing, using public-private collaborations, tax breaks and asking the private sector from outside their borders for commitments to their countries. In maximizing the impact and accountability of foreign development/assistance, Blockchain technology may address corruption, fraud or misappropriation of funds and inefficiencies within the funding process.

Department of Defense (DoD)

As reflected in the 2018 National Defense Authorization Act (H.R. 2810) as signed into law on Dec. 12, 2017, the US federal government and its agencies are exploring the adoption of Blockchain technology in various areas, after carefully studying the risks posed by this new distributed ledger technology. This evaluation will shed light on the Blockchain technology capabilities to both the Federal Government and Department of Defense IT environments.

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

DHS is awarding Small Business Innovation Research grants to develop a use case for Blockchain technology’s role in border security.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Efficient communications systems and effective computing techniques are crucial to ensure the success of each NASA mission. Greater accessibility of digital information and cost-effective technologies of manned and unmanned space flights are expected to become much better integrated via Blockchain technology. A new grant from NASA to the University of Akron in Ohio will fund research to use deep-learning artificial intelligence that works over an Ethereum Blockchain network to develop a resilient networking and computing paradigm in various space communication environments.

Conclusion

Blockchain is not a silver bullet for digital government, but as this technology is more widely implemented, it could represent the future of smart, legal contracts and how entire industries in partnership with the US government conduct themselves in a transparent and streamlined manner.


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