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世界银行:监管机构准备好迎接数据革命了吗?

国际资讯监管与政策

世界银行:监管机构准备好迎接数据革命了吗?

在金融科技(FinTech)行业的引领下,技术和数据被认为是金融新一轮颠覆式变革的引擎。而FinTech为其不太出名的姊妹RegTech(监管科技)也打开了大门。

英国金融市场行为监管局(Financial Conduct Authority)最早使用RegTech一词并将其定义为FinTech的一个分支。从定义来看,其“重点是那些能比现有手段更有效地促进监管达标的技术”。换言之,RegTech是能提高监管流程的效率、一致性和简便性的技术。

比如,将授权、市场监测、非现场监管和收集监管反馈等现有程序自动化——目前,很多程序都依赖于纸质文件、装订夹或Excel电子表格。例如,巴西中央银行(Central Bank of Brazil)开发出了用于远程审查的技术解决方案。利用被称为Siscom(监管支持与通信综合系统)的系统,监管机构可远程收集数据和文件,并与金融机构进行在线互动。系统将监管任务标准化,将官僚职能(比如,存档)自动化,使监管机构能在兼顾成本效益的情况下,覆盖小型金融机构,提高监管队伍的生产力。

在对RegTech的另一种解释中,确定了RegTech具有四个关键特征,即,组织数据集的敏捷性、配置和生成报告的速度、为缩短解决方案的启动和运行时限的集成能力、大数据分析。

RegTech为监管机构接触消费者等新参与者创造了更多机会。例如,美国消费者金融保护局(Consumer Financial Protection Bureau)建立了一个在线投诉处理系统。系统直接从消费者处采集信息并将信息组织成一个复杂的数据库,供公众查阅。消费者可检索关于单个金融机构的信息,研究人员和负责监管的联邦机构可利用宝贵的信息,确定其工作的优先顺序。

使用替代的数据库有可能扩大或转移监管重点。例如,在大部分地区,代理商被视为金融机构的外包劳动力,其作用是为开户、贷款还款和申请提供便利。金融监管机构目前的做法是,让金融机构监测代理商网络,然后对金融机构的内部监测流程进行审计。这样做不仅是因为监管数千个小型代理商的成本高昂,也由于缺乏监管机构规划监管工作时必需的代理商信息。RegTech能改变这种情形吗?理论上是可以的,因为监管机构可从不同来源获取新信息和远程审查代理商。

但是,政策制定者必须记住,使用替代数据和翻新金融监管机构的“石化”流程不只是技术问题。要充分受益于这些新的解决方案,就必须做出进一步改变:

  1. 改变组织文化以更好地反映出新的监管格局,包括新参与者及其生成的信息。
  2. 监管机构具备新技能以达到公民和新型团体的期望,比如,数据分析和沟通。
  3. 对监管方式进行调整,使监管机构(和金融机构)能更倚重于技术,同时保护消费者的权利,尤其是消费者隐私。

监管机构准备好迎接自身的数据革命了吗?在适应新技术的这条道路上,监管机构不仅需要获取技能、改变文化和监管方式,还需要应对工作中的新风险,比如,数据泄漏、数据丢失和其他很多未知的风险。

Technology and data are considered the engine of new financial disruption, with the financial tech (FinTech) industry leading the way. Yet FinTech also opens the door for a less well-known sibling: RegTech.

The term was first used and defined by the Financial Conduct Authority in the United Kingdom as a subset of FinTech. Per the definition, it "focuses on technologies that may facilitate the delivery of regulatory requirements more efficiently or effectively than existing capabilities." In other words, it is technology that can improve efficiency, consistency, and ease of supervisory processes.

This could be automatization of existing procedures, such as authorization, market monitoring, offsite supervision, and collection of regulatory returns, many of which currently rely on paper documents, physical binders or Excel spreadsheets. The Central Bank of Brazil, for example, has developed a technology solution for what is called remote examination. Through a system called Siscom (Integrated System for Supervision Support and Communication), supervisors can collect data and documents remotely and interact online with financial institutions. It standardized supervisory tasks, automated bureaucratic functions (such as filing documents), and allowed supervisors to reach small financial institutions in a cost-effective way, increasing the productivity of supervision teams.

In another explanation of RegTech, four key characteristics were identified: agility in organizing data sets, speed in configuring and generating reports, integration to reduce timeframes to get solutions up and running, and big data analytics.

RegTech opens further opportunities for supervisors to engage with new actors, such as consumers. For example, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau in the United States sponsored an online complaint handling system that collects information directly from consumers and organizes it in a complex database available to the public. This includes consumers who can retrieve information about an individual financial institution, researchers and federal agencies responsible for regulation and oversight that can use the precious information to prioritize their work.

Using alternative databases can potentially expand or shift the focus of supervision. For example, in most jurisdictions, agents are considered an outsourced workforce of financial institutions, facilitating account opening, payments and applications for loans. The current approach among financial supervisors is to leave the monitoring of agent networks to financial institutions and audit their internal monitoring process, not only because of the high cost of supervising thousands of small agents but also the lack of information about them which would allow supervisors to plan their supervisory work. Can RegTech change this landscape? Theoretically, yes, as supervisors might access new information from different sources and examine agents remotely.

However, policy makers need to keep in mind that using alternative data and face-lifting petrified processes in financial supervisors is not just a matter of technology. To fully benefit from these new solutions, further changes are necessary:

  1. Organizational culture should change to better reflect the new regulatory and supervisory landscape, including new actors and information they generate.
  2. New skills, including data analytics and communication, will be required from supervisors managing the expectations of citizens and new parties.
  3. Regulation will need to change to allow supervisors (and financial institutions) to rely more on technology, while protecting consumers’ rights, particularly their privacy.

Are supervisors ready for their own data revolution? In this road to adapt to new technologies, supervisors will not only need to acquire skills and change culture and regulation, but also address new risks in their activity, such as data breaches, data loss and many others still unknown.


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