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印度银行为何不愿意发放学生贷款?

饱受大量不良贷款之苦的印度拒绝了不少学生贷款。Care Ratings表示,2015至2017年间,印度学生贷款增长量由17%滑至2%。

该研究评级机构在3月29日的报告中表示:"尽管教育领域颇富良机,教育贷款产品组合增长量却较低。一大原因可能在于银行手中贷款违约率升高。"

尽管如此,坏账量仍然有增无减。2015至2017间,教育借贷不良资产由5.7%上升至7.7%。按价值计算,2017年3月,教育不良贷款累积达519.2亿卢比(7.985亿美元)。

印度储备银行表示,截至2016年12月,印度学生总计贷款量达7233.6亿卢比,其中95%为公立银行发放。上述报告表示:"本科生课程贷款违约率比研究生贷款高,原因在于研究生研究领域竞争较低,就业几率与财务成本呈正比。"许多国有银行均提供本科课程贷款。大多数教育贷款不超过40万卢比,也就不需要抵押或第三方担保,这是导致教育领域不良资产的一大关键原因。报告称,学生偿还而父母未一并偿还的情况未缴费用更高。

按地区看,印度南部占据庞大贷款与不良贷款的56%。喀拉拉邦、泰米尔纳德邦总不良贷款水平最高,超10%,而全国均数为7.67%。

银行避免发放学生贷款,非银行金融机构却在招揽学生群体。

Care Ratings指出:"2017年3月31日,教育贷款领域总体非银行金融机构约为500亿卢比。此类机构在该领域增速较好,且维持了健康的资产质量。"

非银行金融机构似乎从银行的错误中吸取了教训。这些机构更为关注工科、管理与理学等研究生课程,此类贷款占其组合的80%。

此类非银行组织主要满足大城市的需求而非内陆地区,且约束不良贷款,且同样也关注需担保的高额贷款。

对还有很大上升空间的教育贷款领域而言,这些做法极大地降低了违约率。

报告补充道:"教育支出高,相较之下,教育贷款市场渗透率仅为20%。因此,该领域还存在大量未开发部分,可带动贷款机构实现惊人增长,并为领域内已有企业打造可持续增长模式。"

Indian banks, reeling under a mammoth pile of bad loans, are turning down students seeking loans.

Between 2015 and 2017, growth in education loans slipped from 17% to 2%, according to Care Ratings.

“The education loan portfolio growth has been low despite opportunities in the education segment. One major factor could be higher delinquencies experienced by banks,” the research and rating agency said in the March 29 report.

Still, the bad apples are piling up. Non-performing assets (NPAs) in education loans increased from 5.7% to 7.7% between 2015 and 2017. In value terms, soured education loans amounted to Rs5,192 crore ($798.5 billion) in March 2017.

In total, students across India had borrowed around Rs72,336 crore as of December 2016, according to data from the Reserve Bank of India, out of which 95% is owed to public sector banks. “The delinquencies are likely to be higher in undergraduate courses vis-à-vis post-graduate courses as employment opportunities are commensurate with the financial costs on account of lower competition in those segments,” the report said. Most state-run banks fund undergraduate courses.

Most educational loans are of less than Rs4 lakh, for which no collateral or third-party guarantee is needed—a key reason for the NPAs in the segment. Unpaid dues are higher when the loan is being repaid by students and not jointly by the parents, said the report.

Geographically, southern India accounts for about 56% of the outstanding loans and NPAs. Kerala and Tamil Nadu showed the highest level of gross NPAs—over 10%—compared to the national average of 7.67%.

Others chip in

As banks shun students, non-banking financial companies (NBFCs) are wooing them.

“The overall portfolio of NBFCs in this segment was around Rs5,000 crore as on March 31, 2017. They have grown their portfolio at a good pace in the segment along with maintaining a healthy asset quality,” Care Ratings noted.

The NBFCs seem to have learnt from banks’ mistakes. They focus more on post-graduate courses—engineering, management, and master of science—which account for about 80% of their portfolio. These non-bank organisations mostly cater to metros and not the hinterland, keeping bad loans in check. The NBFCs also focus on higher-value loans where collateral is required.

All this significantly reduces defaults in a sector where there’s lots of headroom for growth.

“The penetration in education loan market is only 20% compared with the higher education expenditure,” the report added. “Hence, there is still a large untapped segment which can lead to significant growth for lenders and creation of sustainable model for the players in this segment.”


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