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印度加密货币交易所今夏前景不明

全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯监管与政策

印度加密货币交易所今夏前景不明

上月,印度央行禁止所有银行与加密货币交易所进行交易,发布指令规定需在六月一日前关停所有现有账户。最近,虚拟货币交易所寻求法律途径,就印度储蓄银行禁令向最高法院提起申诉。

然而,最高法院并未让虚拟交易所如释重负。首席法官Dipak Misra在5月17日颁布的命令中表示:"请愿方也应在两周内向储备银行主管当局提交陈述,储备银行需依法进行处理。"

与此同时,最高法院下次听审此案的时间为6月20日,已是储备银行规定关停所有加密货币账户截止日期后的两周,印度加密货币体系如今进退维谷。

Kali Digital Eco-Systems的主管Kunal Barchha表示:"普遍认为此命令意味着禁令仍将生效,至少目前情况如此。业务已受此不确定性影响,这种情况将有所持续。" Kali Digital Eco-Systems拟在未来几月上线其加密货币交易所。Kali上月在德里高级法院也就禁令提出了质疑。

希望与绝望

最高法院命令出台,储备银行的态度将左右局势。TRA Law律所代表四家虚拟货币交易所向最高法院提出了请愿。该公司任事股东Anirudh Rastogi表示:"虚拟交易所一大不满在于储备银行所做出的决定并未考虑其意见。"

Rastogi说道:"其次,并不应对全行业下禁令,而是应以个体为考量,处罚违反规则的企业。"大多数虚拟交易所表示其严格遵守指南,保证无洗钱或非法行为,且交易所采取的自治措施化解了储备银行的疑虑。Rastogi补充道:"希望央行可从提案中了解到这些企业所采取措施的优点。"

不过,其它加密货币参与者已做好该央行指令并不松动的准备。某家交易所负责人匿名表示:"为遵守储备银行新规,许多企业正准备发布或已经上线加密对加密交易,即允许用乎进行加密货币间交易。有些企业则尝试在他国设立办事处,也就是说大多交易所都在另谋出路。"

最高法院还禁止请愿人向其他高级法院就加密货币对储备银行提起诉讼。应储备银行要求,所有相关案件将并入已有请愿集中审理。

律师Dwaipayan Bhowmick表示:"有案件递交至加尔各答高级法院、德里高级法院等地,储备银行请求将有关比特币及其他加密货币的案件合并以节省时间。" Bhowmick曾在11月向最高法院提起公诉,要求监管此类加密货币。

与此同时,最高法院要求印度司法部长、政府首席法律顾问K K Venugopal出席下场听证会。一位不愿具名的律师表示:"政府也是某些案件的利益攸关分,这可能是要求司法部长出席的原因之一。但这也清楚地表明最高法院认为此事事关重大,因此要求司法部长在场。"

The fate of Indian cryptocurrency exchanges continues to be in a limbo as they await clarity from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the country’s top court.

Last month, the central bank barred all banks from having any business relationship with these exchanges, with a directive to wind down all existing accounts by the first week of July. Staring at the end of the road in India, the virtual currency exchanges then took the legal route appealing against the RBI order at India’s supreme court.

However, the supreme court has not provided any breather to the exchanges yet. “The petitioners shall be at liberty to submit a representation to the competent authority of RBI within two weeks hence which shall be dealt with in accordance with law,” read a May 17 order given by chief justice Dipak Misra, a copy of which has been seen by Quartz. The other judges on the bench included A M Khanwilkar and D Y Chandrachud.

Meanwhile, India’s digital currency ecosystem is in a quandary as the next date for the hearing of the case in the apex court is July 20, two weeks after the RBI deadline to close down all crypto-related bank accounts.

“The understanding is that this means that the ban will continue, at least for the time being. Businesses are getting affected due to this uncertainty and this phase will continue for a while,” said Kunal Barchha, director at Kali Digital Eco-Systems, which plans to launch its cryptocurrency exchange in the next few months. Kali had also challenged the RBI’s diktat in the Delhi high court last month.

Hope and despair

With the latest supreme court order, it is up to the RBI now. “Among the major grievances that these virtual currency exchanges have is that the decision had been taken by the RBI without taking their views into account,” said Anirudh Rastogi, managing partner at legal firm TRA Law, which has filed the petition for four exchanges in the supreme court.

“And second, there shouldn’t be an industry wide-ban, instead it can be implemented on a case-to-case basis where it is seen that the firms are violating any of the norms,” he said. Most of these exchanges claim that they follow strict guidelines to ensure that there is no money laundering or illicit activities, and the steps taken by them to self-regulate address several concerns raised by the RBI. “Hopefully, the central bank will be able to see merit in the steps taken by the firms in the recommendations made,” added Rastogi.

Still, other cryptocurrency players have been preparing for a scenario where there won’t be any respite from the central bank’s order. “Lot of firms are looking at launching or have already launched crypto-to-crypto trade (which allows customers to buy one cryptocurrency in exchange for another) to comply with the new RBI rule,” said the head of another exchange, requesting anonymity. “Some others are also exploring to set up offices in other countries, so most exchanges have been looking at other options.”

The supreme court has also barred petitioners from filing any case against the RBI on the subject of cryptocurrency in any of the other high courts. All the cases on this topic will be merged with the existing petitions and will be heard collectively, as per the central bank’s request.

“There were cases being filed in the Calcutta high court, Delhi high court, etc. So the RBI asked the supreme court to merge all the cases on bitcoin and other such currencies in order to save time,” said Dwaipayan Bhowmick, a lawyer who had filed a public interest litigation in the supreme court in November requesting that these currencies be regulated.

Meanwhile, the supreme court has also asked the attorney general of India (AGI), K K Venugopal, who is the government’s chief legal advisor, to be present on the next date of hearing. “The union government is also a party in some of the cases that has been filed so that may be one of the reasons for calling the AGI,” said a lawyer, requesting anonymity. “But also it clearly shows that the court thinks it’s a significant matter and has therefore asked the AGI to be present.”


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