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国际资讯监管与政策

FCA发布银行处理加密资产风险指导意见

6月11日,据英国金融行为监管局(FCA)在其网站上发布的一则消息称,FCA已经就如何处理与“加密资产”相关的风险给予银行以指导意见。

执行董事监理Jonathan Davidson和Megan Butler发布声明称,银行应该对处理加密资产的客户采取高度个性化的方法,因为在一个宽泛的类别中,不同业务关系的风险可能会有所不同。

声明中继续说:

遵循基于风险的方法并不意味着银行应该以同样的方式对待所有参与这些活动的客户。我们预计,银行会认识到,在单一的类别中,风险因业务关系的不同而不同,应适当地管理这些风险。

因此,监管机构建议银行采取一些恰当的做法或措施,以防范客户使用加密货币的犯罪风险。

FCA鼓励银行提高员工对“加密资产”的认识,帮助他们识别风险,并加深与加密货币交易客户的接触,以了解他们业务的性质。

在声明中,金融监管机构还强调了使用加密货币的非犯罪动机,包括资助“创新技术开发”和高风险的“投机性投资”。

然而,考虑到加密技术的全球性和匿名性,FCA提出了一些“高风险”指标,比如使用国家发行的加密货币的客户,以及持有大量ICO代币的客户。

FCA解释说,使用国家支持的加密货币的风险在于,它“旨在规避国际金融制裁”。

关于与ICO相关的风险,这种做法涉及“更大的风险,消费者容易成为投资欺诈的受害者。”

2017年12月下旬,当比特币达到创纪录的价格时,FCA警告投资者说,比特币是泡沫,并声称比特币是一种“奇怪的”商品,理由是比特币具有稀缺性。

今年4月,肯尼亚中央银行(CBK)向该国的银行发出了类似的警告,警告他们不要向加密货币交易商提供服务。CBK行长Patrick Njoroge说:

加密货币存在风险,特别是在消费者保护、欺诈、黑客攻击和数据丢失方面,很容易被用作金字塔骗局。

The UK’s Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) has issued guidance for banks on how to handle the risks associated with “crypto assets”, according to a letter posted on the FCA’s website June 11.

Per the statement issued by Executive Directors of Supervision Jonathan Davidson and Megan Butler, banks should apply a highly individual approach to clients dealing with crypto assets since “the risk associated with different business relationships in a single broad category can vary.” The statement continues:

“Following a risk-based approach does not mean banks should approach all clients operating in these activities in the same way. Instead, we expect banks to recognise that the risk associated with different business relationships in a single broad category can vary, and to manage those risks appropriately.”

Thus, the regulatory body has suggested a number of “good practice” measures to be carried out by banks in order to avoid the risks of customers using cryptocurrencies for “criminal purposes.” The FCA encouraged banks to develop staff awareness of “crypto assets” to help them identify its risks, and to engage with crypto-dealing clients to understand the nature of their business, among others.

In the statement, the financial regulator also stressed the non-criminal motives for using cryptocurrencies, including funding “innovative technological development” and high-risk “speculative investments.” However, taking into account the globality and anonymity of crypto, the FCA suggested a couple of "high-risk" indicators, such as clients using a state-issued cryptocurrency and possessing large amounts of initial coin offering (ICO) tokens.

The FCA explained that the risk of using a state-sponsored cryptocurrency is that it is “designed to evade international financial sanctions.” Considering the risks associated with ICOs, the regulator stated that this kind of practice involves a “heightened risk of falling victim to investment fraud.”

In late December 2017, when Bitcoin (BTC) was hitting record prices, the FCA warned investors about the risks of losing all their money, claiming that Bitcoin is a bubble, and an “odd” commodity, citing its scarcity.

In April, the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) issued a similar warning to the banks in the country, warning them against providing services to crypto dealers. CBK Governor Patrick Njoroge said, “There are risks associated with cryptocurrency particularly on consumer protection, fraud, hacking and loss of data and they are prone to be used as pyramid scheme.”


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