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美国:国会议员提出加密货币和ICO联邦监管计划

据俄亥俄州新闻机构Cleveland.com 12月3日报道,美国众议员Warren Davidson计划在国内引入新的立法,以明确监管加密货币和首次代币发行(ICO)。

据Cleveland.com报道,Davidson将在“区块链解决方案会议”中提出新的监管法案。该法案将为加密货币和数字资产创建一个新的“资产类别”,至此加密货币以及数字资产将不在归类为证券,也将便于联邦政府对首次代币发行进行更有效的监管。

这一进展将使得美国针对加密货币的监管更加清晰。但目前,各州的监管机构对其管辖范围内代币的分类却尽不相同。

美国证券交易委员会(SEC)的立场是:大多数的加密货币都是证券。而商品期货交易委员会(CFTC)则将加密货币都视为商品。

也就是说,商品期货交易委员会认为,相比于货币或证券,比特币与黄金拥有更多的共同点,因为比特币既不是政府所支持的,也不存在债务责任。然而美国金融犯罪执法网络(FINCEN)则将加密货币视为货币来处理。

与此同时,负责执行经济制裁的美国财政部海外资产控制办公室(PFAC)也将加密货币视为货币,并将被实施制裁人员的钱包地址列入到黑名单中。最后要说的是美国国税局(IRS),该机构将加密货币定义为资产来处理,而这就意味着出售加密货币所得利润需缴纳资本利得税。

9月份,多个美国国会代表致函美国证交会主席Jay Clayton,并在信中呼吁“为隶属证券的数字代币制定更明确的指导方针。”

同月,来自主要加密公司以及华尔街金融公司的45名代表参加了关于加密货币和ICO监管的国会圆桌会议。在此会议期间(由Davidson主持),专家们表示出对此行业缺乏明确监管的担忧,并对代币的应属归类进行了讨论。

Davidson在此之前就曾表示出对加密行业的支持,并暗示ICO市场需要“轻触式”监管。11月,美国众议院的一位发言人称:

“Davidson正在起草一份法案,且一旦通过,则将会在联邦和州政府层面将ICO视为商品而不是证券来处理,而这也将有效的规避了证券法。”

U.S. Rep. Warren Davidson (R) has announced plans to introduce legislation that would clearly regulate cryptocurrencies and Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs), local Ohio news agency Cleveland.com reports Dec. 3.

According to Cleveland.com, Davidson announced his intention to introduce new legislation at the Blockchain Solutions conference. The bill would create an “asset class” for cryptocurrencies and digital assets, which “would prevent them from being classified as securities, but would also allow the federal government to regulate initial coin offerings more effectively.”

This development would bring clarity to U.S. crypto regulation. Currently, state regulatory agencies classify tokens differently in ways that place them under their jurisdiction.

The Securities and Exchanges Commission (SEC) stance is that most cryptocurrencies are securities. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), on the other hand, treats cryptocurrencies as commodities.

In other words, the CFTC states that Bitcoin (BTC) has more in common with gold than with currencies or securities since it is not backed by a government and does not have liabilities attached to it. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FINCEN), the agency managing anti-money laundering (AML) and know your client (KYC) standards, views crypto as money.

The U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), which enforces economic sanctions, views crypto as money and blacklists wallets of sanctioned persons. Lastly, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) treats cryptocurrencies as property, meaning that profits from selling them are subject to capital gains tax.

A group of U.S. Congressional representatives sent a letter in September to the SEC Chairman Jay Clayton calling for “clearer guidelines between those digital tokens that are securities, and those that are not.”

The same month, over 45 representatives of major crypto companies and Wall Street firms attended a Congressional roundtable discussion on cryptocurrency and ICO regulation. During meeting, which was hosted by Davidson, experts expressed concerns about a lack of regulatory clarity in the industry and discussed “token taxonomy.”

Davidson has previously demonstrated his support for the crypto industry, suggesting that the ICO market needs “light touch” regulation. A spokesman for the U.S. representative said in November that Davidson is working on a bill that, once law, would treat ICOs as products rather than securities at the federal and state level, effectively “sidestepping” security laws.

As Cointelegraph reported yesterday, seven Ohio funds will hand over $300 million to blockchain startups by the end of 2021. Of this money, $100 million will be invested by nonprofit JumpStart.

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