最有看点的互联网金融门户

最有看点的互联网金融门户
国际资讯监管与政策

效仿欧洲,美国计划尝试金融数据开放计划

国际资讯监管与政策

效仿欧洲,美国计划尝试金融数据开放计划

数字革新使银行与金融科技间的界限不再分明,发端于支付领域的数字革新震动了整个金融服务业,改变了人们的资产管理方式,使消费者的选择范围跳脱银行账户之外,拓展至数字领域。

正如普华永道《2017数字银行消费者调查》中所述,联结消费者的银行账户与数字生活可创造高质顺畅的客户体验。比如Prosper等市场借贷企业正变革着个人信用,Robinhood提供零佣金股票与交易所交易基金(ETF)交易服务。

凯捷公司《全球零售银行报告》也指出,相比传统银行,金融科技企业所提供的银行体验可能更受欢迎。金融科技创新使消费者更易充分利用资金周转,消费更具效率,保证财务目标成功实现。金融科技企业成功地通过创新提供了以客户为中心的服务,并缓和了过快发展。然而,正如莱尔·布雷纳德(Lael Brainard)所言,"几乎所有金融科技企业应用的软件栈都在某种程度上指向了银行。"

未来,金融数据监管方式或将塑造所有市场参与者的经营模式。如今,欧洲已经制定了开放银行标准与数据共享规则,在数据监管方面领先美国。然而,受市场力量与消费者选择的驱动,同样的转变也正在美国上演。

开源应用程序接口与创新

满足顾客对便捷与易操作的期许需要,银行与金融科技企业正在积极加强合作。这种互依互存催生了开放银行与应用,利用消费者数据与创新创造可带来新收益源的具体化服务。比如,通过开源应用程序接口(API),尚未与银行建立联系的第三方同样可以合法获取到用户交易数据 (例如将Venmo等转账账户与银行机构的个人支票账户相关联)。这种参与模式保证银行融入到这种市场导向的合作关系中,同时保持在消费者生活中的可见度。

这场数据驱动的转变所影响的并不只是银行的资产负债。零售商是金融生态系统中不可或缺的一环。只要零售商接入银行应用程序接口,消费者可能只需点击智能手机应用按键就可完成购买交易。由于开源应用程序的本质与其对专有软件的公共开放性,银行对安全与隐私的担忧我们也可以理解。换句话说,银行数据监管将对未来商业模式产生重大影响,而欧洲在这方面已经走在了前列。

开放银行与《支付口令修正案》

迄今为止,大多数监管机构还未对金融数据所有权问题进行明确表态。不过,英国开放银行标准与欧洲《支付口令修正案》(Revised Payment Services Directive,PSD2)即将于2018年正式生效,而这将对消费者信任关系产生重大影响。

开放银行的核心议题在于用户许可。这是消费者首次可掌控其银行数据,决定何方可获取及如何使用其数据。按照这个新规,消费者可以:

  1. 使用服务,汇总其银行数据至单一提供商。
  2. 允许已注册第三方会计人员直接获取其交易数据。
  3. 直接通过一个银行账户进行购物支付,而非指定某一张借记卡或信用卡。

尽管美国并未出台类似法规,但向开放银行的转变仍将到来。开放银行与《支付口令修正案》的最终目标在于通过数字化提升消费者体验。欧洲所推出的规则反应了一种共识,即通过开源应用程序接口共享银行数据未消费者提供了更为个性化、易操作且富洞见的服务。为迎接此项转折,整个市场需认定开源应用程序接口是安全的。如若不然,市场就将陷入仅有个体定义而无标准化的风险。

美国银行应将欧洲所发生的转变视作市场力量席卷全球的证据。开放银行机制影响重大,甚至已经催生了《支付口令修正案》等一系列监管举措。我们没有理由怀疑美国会剑走偏锋。事实上,即便没有监管刺激,金融数据变革也会在消费者需求驱动下持续演进。

未来,具前瞻性思维的金融机构必须始终以消费者为中心,保证消费者数字身份安全,同时打造个性化顺畅的服务体验,只有这样才能占据先发优势。

As digital disruption blurs the lines between banks and fintechs, the way financial data is regulated will come to shape the business models of every player in the market. With open banking standards and data portability rules, Europe is ahead of the U.S. on data regulation, but the same shift is coming to the U.S., driven by market forces and consumer choice.

The digital disruption that started with payments is rocking the entire financial services industry. Fintech startups are transforming how people interact with their finances, extending consumer choice straight out of their bank account and into the digital space.

As documented in PwC's 2017 Digital Banking Consumer Survey, connecting consumers' bank accounts with their digital lives delivers a superior, frictionless customer experience. Marketplace lenders like Prosper are transforming personal credit. Robinhood offers free stock and ETF trades. In the Netherlands, the fintech provider MoneYou advertises customers can now take out a loan completely online in as little as seven minutes.

According to Capgemini's World Retail Banking Report, these fintech providers are more likely than traditional banks to deliver a positive banking experience to consumers. Fintech innovations make it easier for consumers to optimize their cash flow, spend more efficiently, and meet financial goals across every bank account they own. Fintech firms are succeeding at delivering the customer-centric promise through innovation and lightening quick development. And yet, as Federal Reserve governor Lael Brainard points out, "the software stacks of almost all fintech apps point to a bank at one layer or another."

Open APIs and Innovation

Meeting customers' expectations for convenience and ease-of-use requires more collaboration than ever between banks and fintech firms. This interdependence has led to the emergence of Open Banking and APIs (Application Program Interface), using customer data and innovations to create more contextual services that deliver new revenue streams.

Through open APIs, transactional data is made available to third parties that may not have a formal relationship with the bank, for example connecting a money transfer account like Venmo to a personal checking account from a banking institution. Participating in this market-driven collaboration ensures banks won't be left behind and will remain a central part of a customer's life.

The implications of this data-driven shift extend beyond bank balance sheets. As retailers, with their integral position in the financial ecosystem, gain access to banks' APIs, they are enabling customers to close out a purchase with the tap of a button in their smartphone app. It is only right, given the inherent nature of open APIs and their public availability to proprietary software, that many banks have expressed concern around their security and privacy. This is where regulations for banking data are shaping business models - as we can already see in Europe.

Open Banking and PSD2

Until now, regulators have stayed relatively silent over financial data ownership. But in 2018, the UK's Open Banking standard and the EU's Revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2) are due to come into effect, and they will have big impacts on customer trust relationships.

At the heart of Open Banking is the issue of user consent. For the first time, a customer will be able to control his or her banking data - who gets access to it and what they can do with it.

Customers will be able to:

  1. Utilize services to aggregate all of their banking transaction data with one provider.
  2. Enable registered third party accountants to directly access their transaction data.
  3. Pay for purchases directly with a bank account rather than a debit or credit card.

While financial regulators in the U.S. don't have similar regulations in the works, the shift to open banking is still coming. Ultimately, Open Banking and PSD2 aim to improve the customer experience through digitization. The European rules reflect an understanding that sharing bank data through open APIs offers consumers more personalization, ease of use, and insight. To prepare for this shift, the whole market needs to define open APIs that are secure. If not, then the market runs the risk of individual definitions without standardization.

American banks should view these changes happening in Europe as evidence of market forces sweeping across the globe. The era of open banking, typically coupled with immediate payment mechanisms that often bypass cards, is a major influence that is being codified with PSD2 and similar initiatives worldwide. We have no reason to believe U.S. regulators will act any differently. Indeed, even without the spur of regulation, the disruption will continue to be driven by consumer demand.

Forward thinking institutions will take the first mover advantage in this new era by keeping the customer at the center, holding customer's digital identity secure while creating a personalized, friction-free experience.

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