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瑞典央行针对电子克朗展开全面分析

国际资讯监管与政策

瑞典央行针对电子克朗展开全面分析

2017年春季,瑞典央行(Riskbank)启动了一个项目,研究创建中央银行数字货币(后文简称CBDC)。随着该国现金使用率的下降,瑞典央行表示电子货币可以确保公众将会仍然可以使用有国家保障的支付方式。

不过瑞典央行也表示,何时在该国引进电子克朗(e-krona)还有待确认,该机构必须先对电子克朗引进后的后果有充足认知,同时开发和测试相关技术方案。

考虑到这一点,瑞典央行建议:

  1. 开始为e-krona设计技术解决方案,以测试哪些解决方案切实可行并且可以实现
  2. 提出修订立法修正案的建议,以澄清瑞典央行的授权和电子克朗的法律地位
  3. 继续调查e-krona的金融属性。

瑞典央行设想的这种电子货币,既可以存放在瑞典银行的账户中(基于账户),也可以存储在本地,例如存储在卡片或移动电话应用程序中(基于价值)。

基于价值的电子克朗与Sveriges Riksbank法案兼容,但项目团队表示,该法案需要针对基于帐户的电子克朗进行修订。

IBM最近对21家中央银行进行的民意调查显示,38%的机构正在积极开展CBDC的研究和试验。但是,虽然大多数受访者认为中央银行应该发行自己的CBDC——特别强调批发银行间市场——但与数字法令相关的治理问题仍然没有明确的共识。

Sweden's central bank is pushing ahead with plans to build a technical framework for the issuance of a new electronic currency, the e-krona.

The Riksbank started a project in the spring of 2017 to examine the scope for the creation of a central bank digital currency (CBDC), With cash usage on the decline in Sweden, the central bank says an electronic currency could ensure that the general public will still have access to a state-guaranteed means of payment.

"Adopting a position on whether Sweden should introduce an e-krona will take time," states the Bank. "But at the same time, the analysis work needs to continue to increase the Riksbank's knowledge of the consequences of an e-krona and technological solutions need to be developed and tested."

With this in mind, the Riskbank is proposing to:

  1. Begin to design a technical solution for an e-krona in order to test which solutions are practicable and possible to realise
  2. Draw up proposals for legislative amendments needed to clarify the Riksbank's mandate and an e-krona's legal standing
  3. Continue investigating the financial aspects of an e-krona.

The Bank envisages an electronic currency that can either be held in an account at the Riksbank (account-based) or be stored locally, for example on a card or in a mobile phone app (value-based).

A value-based e-krona is compatible with the Sveriges Riksbank Act, but the team behind the project say the Act would need to be amended for an account-based e-krona.

"Developing one or more possible technical solutions for an e-krona would provide the Riksbank with greater room for manoeuvre and knowledge prior to a decision on whether or not to issue an e-krona," states the Bank. "A preliminary technical solution for the e-krona should focus on a value-based e-krona without interest and with traceable transactions. The Riksbank should also continue investigating an account-based e-krona which would require coordination with other authorities. It is reasonable that a system for an account-based e-krona is built in agreement and perhaps together with other authorities."

A recent poll of 21 central banks by IBM, found 38% are actively conducting researching and trialing CBDCs. But while most of the respondents believe central banks should be issuing their own CBDCs - with a particular emphasis on the wholesale interbank markets - there remains no clear consensus on the governance issues associated with digital fiat.

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