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IBM:央行数字货币可降低导致2008年金融危机产生的风险

全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯

IBM:央行数字货币可降低导致2008年金融危机产生的风险

近日,IBM中央银行数字货币(CBDC)解决方案全球主管Stanley Yong表示,CBDC可以降低导致2008年金融危机产生的风险。

11月14日,在接受CNBC“Squawk Box”节目采访时,Yong还谈到了如何克服现有数字支付系统的碎片化。

CBDC或者说国家数字货币,就是由联邦监管机构发行和控制的虚拟货币。CBDC并不是像大多数加密货币那样去中心化——相反,它们代表的是法定货币,只是数字形式。

Yong还是IBM区块链金融服务首席技术官(CTO),曾与企业区块链联盟R3和区块链孵化器Consensys合作,并且在新加坡央行新加坡金融管理局(MAS)任职十年时间,致力于运营支付系统。

Yong在接受CNBC采访时表示,CBDC是"金融服务业获得结算确定性的唯一途径,尤其是当你考虑到2008年雷曼危机期间出现的各种风险时。"

他表示,在2008年金融危机期间发生的部分结算系统冻结(一种影响多个国家金融系统的系统性失灵),是“对当时可用的交付与支付机制缺乏信心”引发的。“因此,他提议:

“在区块链系统中,灵活地将各国央行在货币转移方面的数字系统与提供各种商品、衍生品和股票的交割机制结合起来,这将成为我们摆脱2008年那种风险的手段。”

Yong进一步指出,CDBC的主要优势之一(即使在发达经济体)是减少“市场碎片化”,即使这些国家的社会在某种程度上已经“无现金”并使用了大量的数字支付解决方案。

他指出,在所谓的“闭环系统”(例如,存入预付卡)中的资金不能用于其它零售领域。尽管Visa和万事达(MasterCard)的预付卡是开放的,但他认为它们的成本和手续费还不足以让它们成为小额支付的可行选择。

当被问及CBDC版本的美元是否“切实可行”时,Yong表示,有了“正确的商业和法律覆盖”,支撑加密货币的区块链的技术也可以用来为美元提供某种“货币替代品”。

今天早些时候,国际货币基金组织(IMF)主席在新加坡金融科技节上发表讲话,建议国际社会“考虑”支持CBDC。IMF总裁克里斯蒂娜?拉加德(Christine Lagarde)承认,她对更广泛意义上的加密货币“并不完全信服”,但她表示,“政府可以在向数字经济提供资金方面发挥一定作用。”

Stanley Yong, global lead for central bank digital currency (CBDC) solutions at IBM, has said that CBDCs can help to mitigate the risks that contributed to the 2008 financial crash.

Yong also spoke on his perspective of how to overcome the fragmentation of existing digital payment systems during an interview for CNBC’s Squawk Box Nov. 14.

CBDCs, or national digital currencies, are virtual currencies that are issued and controlled by a federal regulator. CBDCs are not decentralized, like most cryptocurrencies — instead, they represent fiat money, only in digital form.

Yong is also Chief Technical Officer (CTO) of IBM Blockchain for Financial Services, and has previously worked with enterprise blockchain consortium R3 and blockchain incubator ConsenSys, as well as spending a decade operating payment systems for Singapore’s central bank, the Monetary Authority of Singapore.

Speaking to CNBC, Yong said that CBDCs are “the only way you can have the certainty of settlement that is required for financial services, especially when you think about the kinds of risks that came about during the Lehman crisis of 2008.”

He suggested that part of the settlement system freeze — a systemic failure that affected financial systems across multiple countries — that occurred during the 2008 crisis was triggered by “a lack of confidence in the delivery versus payment mechanisms that were available at that point in time.” He therefore proposed that:

“Combining what central banks have in terms of digital systems for money transfer [...] with the delivery mechanisms for all sorts of commodities, derivatives, and stocks in a blockchain system, flexibly […] would be the way we get rid of the kinds of risks we saw in 2008.”

Yong made the further point that one of the major advantages of a CDBC, even in developed economies whose societies are to some extent already “cashless” and use a wide array of digital payment solutions, would be the reduction in the “fragmentation of the marketplace.”

The money caught in so-called “closed-loop systems” — for example, deposited onto a prepaid travel card —  cannot be used in other retail contexts, he noted. And while Visa and MasterCard prepaid debit cards are open loop, he considered them to not be cost- and fee-efficient enough to make them viable for micro payments.

When asked whether a CBDC version of the U.S. dollar would be “realistic,” Yong said that with “the correct business and legal overlays,” the same technology that underpins cryptocurrencies, blockchain, could be used to provide a sort of “currency replacement” for the greenback.

Speaking at the Singapore Fintech Festival earlier today, the head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) proposed that the international community should “consider” endorsing CBDCs. While admitting she was not “quite convinced” by crypto more broadly, IMF head Christine Lagarde said “there may be a role for the state to supply money to the digital economy.”

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