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美国:初创企业和特朗普助推次级个人贷款蓬勃发展

专栏全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯

美国:初创企业和特朗普助推次级个人贷款蓬勃发展

美国人又开始大肆挥霍次级贷款。

由于金融科技初创企业提供的融资以及特朗普政府对发薪日贷款更宽松的监管,预计明年个人贷款将显著增多。

信用评分公司TransUnion的数据显示,次级个人贷款余额自2014年以来一直在攀升,预计明年将增长20%,达到创纪录的1563亿美元。今年最后三个月将是有史以来手续费规模最大的季度,约占500万笔贷款。TransUnion的消费贷款业务负责人Jason Laky说道:"其中很多都是由非主要和次级贷款手续费推动的。"

过去,信用不良的借款人是个人贷款申请的主力军,他们无法获得信用卡或住房净值贷款等其他类型的融资。但在次级信贷泡沫破灭十年后,个人贷款正在复苏,主要是因为数字初创企业正通过这种方式快速轻松地借钱给消费者。通过智能手机,借款人只需几秒就能获得贷款,不用再去银行,而银行可能对无抵押(无担保)贷款持谨慎态度。

个人贷款并不是新鲜事物,另一种越来越受欢迎的销售点贷款也早就出现过。位于旧金山的Affirm由PayPal联合创始人Max Levchin创立,是销售点贷款的领导企业之一,覆盖1200多家美国零售商。该公司表示,与传统借贷机构相比,其借贷流程在信贷领域可以批准的申请人更多。Levchin表示自己公司的贷款比其他产品更公平、更透明,因为其中没有隐藏的费用,而且有固定的支付日期。

发薪日贷款也有所增加。如今,这种高息短期借款通常以分期贷款的形式在线进行。据NerdWallet报告,位于旧金山的LendUp就是新一代发薪日借贷机构的典型,年利率在30%至1300%之间,具体取决于贷款类型。

在特朗普政府的推动下,发薪日贷款又重现江湖。消费者金融保护局(CFPB)曾积极寻求控制这种高息贷款,但在特朗普当选,Mick Mulvaney成为该局的代理主任后,这些都发生了变化。此后针对高息借贷机构的严格规定被束之高阁,执法力度也有所下降。

Laky说道:"CFPB领导层有所变动,并向市场做出了非常明确的声明,表明他们将实施更宽松的监管,尤其是次级抵押贷款方面的监管。正如我们看到的,市场中资本回报很快。"

Americans are again splurging on subprime debt. The spigots are forecast to open even wider next year for personal loans, thanks to financing provided by fintech startups as well as the Trump administration’s lighter regulatory touch on payday lending.

Subprime personal loan balances have been climbing since 2014 and are forecast to increase 20% next year, to a record $156.3 billion, according to credit-scoring firm TransUnion. The last three months of this year will be the biggest quarter ever for origination, accounting for some 5 million loans. “A lot of it is being driven by non-prime and subprime originations,” said Jason Laky, TransUnion’s consumer-lending business lead.

In the past, personal loans were mainly used by borrowers with weak credit who weren’t able to get other kinds of financing, like credit cards or home equity loans. But now, a decade after the subprime credit bubble popped, personal loans are experiencing a revival thanks to digital startups that make it quick and easy to borrow money this way. Instead of going to a bank, which may have been wary of the unsecured (no collateral) form of lending, borrowers can now get money in seconds via their smartphone.

Personal loans aren’t new, and neither are point-of-sale loans, another option that is becoming increasingly popular. San Francisco-based Affirm, founded by PayPal co-founder Max Levchin, is one of the leaders in point-of-sale loans and is available at more than 1,200 US retailers. The company says its lending process allows it to approve far more applicants across the credit spectrum than traditional lenders. Levchin says the company’s loans are fairer and more transparent than other products, because there are no hidden fees and they have a set pay-off date.

Payday lending has also increased. These days, this type of high-interest, short-term debt often takes place online through installment loans. San Francisco-based LendUp is an example of the new breed of payday lenders, charging annual percentage rates that can range from 30% to more than 1,300% depending on the type of loan, according to a report by NerdWallet.

Payday loans are back thanks to the Trump administration. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) had aggressively pursued this type of high-interest lending, but all of that changed after Donald Trump was elected and Mick Mulvaney became the bureau’s acting director. Strict rules aimed at high-interest lenders have since been shelved and enforcement has declined.

“The CFPB leadership changed and made very clear statements to the market that they’re going to have a lighter touch on regulations, especially subprime regulation,” Laky said. ”We have seen a very quick return of capital in market.”

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