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瑞士放宽对区块链和加密货币初创公司的法律监管

近日,瑞士政府在一份官方报告中宣布了针对区块链监管的新立法思路。该文件中指出,区块链技术对于金融部门促进国家经济方面会起到关键作用。

瑞士创新天堂

报告中指出,瑞士联邦委员会接下来的工作重点是确保瑞士作为金融中心的诚信和名誉,并利用数字化所带来的机遇来对国家进行更好的定位。

政府的计划是制定出最佳的法律框架,以便于国家可以继续成为金融科技、区块链以及更多领域创新公司的绝佳栖息地。

尽管报告中对加密货币存在非法用途(例如资助恐怖主义融资)的风险进行了讨论,但其的主要目的还是表达政府对加密技术的积极态度,且报告中指出,应对国家法律进行修订,以此来认可没有任何有形资产支持的加密数字代币。瑞士联邦委员会也明确表示:希望去中心化金融交易可在法律中占有一席之地。

报告中提到了一项建议,即给予瑞士金融管理局(FINMA)自行裁量权,以此来放宽对去中心化证券交易平台的监管(只要平台的活动没有损害投资者利益)。这一监管方式规避了现行立法,并与欧盟在此问题上的立场达成一致。

同时,瑞士经济学家Luzius Meisser也在一份书面声明中表示,他认为此种监管方式将更为有效,他说道:

“此建议再次表明了,瑞士制定原则性法律的传统方式(赋予公民和监管机构自由裁量权)与过于详细的欧洲式法律相比,更有利于创新。”

瑞士政府已经决定,将对现行法律进行调整以纳入新兴技术,而并不会制定出一系列新的立法。“加密谷协会(CVA)”的监管事务发言人Mattia Rattaggi就该协会对以上声明的立场发表了评论:

“我们认为此种做法最能体现技术中立原则,也符合了CVA在咨询过程中所采取的立场......更为重要的是,此种方式确保了现行法律框架中最大一致性,也保持了现行法律的原则性和灵活性,同时也允许了法律在需要监管的基础上进行修改。”

所提议的修改

瑞士联邦委员会的报告中概述了几项该国法律将要进行的修改,但委员会也声明不会立即对金融或保险业的相关法律进行修改,因为委员会认为当涉及到以上行业时,区块链技术仍处于萌芽阶段。目前为止,所提议的几项最重要的立法改革包括:

  1. 修订《集体投资计划法》,向其中纳入新型的“有限合格投资基金”,以便于未来创新产品能够更及时且更具成本效益的投放到市场中。
  2. 修订《企业破产法》(同时也意识到数据也是一种资产)。而此项决定也将帮助瑞士法院在解决法律纠纷时合理分配数字资产。
  3. 扩大《反洗钱法》内容范围,将去中心化交易所纳入其中,并将允许执法部门处理第三方数字资产。
  4. 创建新的授权类别,以此来赋予瑞士金融管理局的自由裁量权,从而放宽对去中心化证券交易商和交易所的监管。
  5. 修订《金融机构法》和《金融市场基础设施法》,以此来使它们在区块链倡议方面更具灵活性

The Swiss government has announced a new legislative approach to blockchain regulation in an official report. The document recognizes the technology as one of the most important recent developments for the financial sector in stimulating the country’s economy.

A Swiss Innovation Paradise

According to the report, the Swiss Federal Council’s main focus is on “ensuring the integrity and reputation of Switzerland as a financial center” and on better positioning the country to “exploit the opportunities offered by digitalization.”

The government’s plan is to create the best possible legal framework conditions so the country can continue to evolve as a leading and sustainable destination for fintech, blockchain, and innovative companies in a number of fields.

Although the report discusses the risk of cryptocurrencies being used for illegal purposes like the financing of terrorism, it maintains a positive attitude towards the technology, noting that the country’s laws should be amended to recognize encrypted digital tokens that are not backed by any physical assets. The Federal Council also made clear that it wants decentralized financial transactions to have a place in the legal code.

A Lighter Touch

The report mentions a proposal to give discretionary powers to the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (FINMA) to loosen regulations affecting decentralized securities trading platforms as long as their activities do not harm investors. This regulatory approach circumvents current legislation enacted so as to be aligned with the EU’s position on the subject.

Swiss economist Luzius Meisser expressed his belief that this approach to legislation could prove much more effective in a written statement, saying:

This shows once again how the traditional Swiss approach of having principle-based laws that give a lot of discretion to citizens and regulatory agencies are much more innovation-friendly than overly detailed European-style laws.

Switzerland has decided to achieve these objectives without creating a slew of new laws, opting instead to adapt current legislation to incorporate new technological developments. Mattia Rattaggi, spokesman for regulatory matters at the Crypto Valley Association (CVA), commented on the association’s stance on these announcements:

We feel that this approach best represents the principle of technological neutrality and is in line with the position taken by the CVA in the consultation process … Crucially, this approach ensures maximum consistency within the current legal framework while keeping it principle-based and flexible, while allowing changes to be adopted on a ‘need-to-regulate’ basis.

Proposed Changes

Switzerland’s Federal Council’s report outlines several modifications to the country’s laws but clarifies that there are no intentions to immediately change financial or insurance industry-related laws, as it considers that blockchain technology is still “in its infancy” when it comes to these sectors. The most important legislative changes proposed so far include:

  1. Amending the Collective Investment Schemes Act to include a new type of “limited qualified investment funds” with the intention of placing future innovative products on the market in a more time and cost-effective way.
  2. Start recognizing data as an asset by changing company bankruptcy laws. This would allow Swiss courts to handle and properly distribute digital assets when solving legal disputes.
  3. Widen the Anti-Money Laundering Act to include decentralized exchanges and allow law enforcement to dispose of third-party digital assets.
  4. Creating new authorization categories to give FINMA discretion to loosen regulations for decentralized securities traders and exchanges based in Switzerland.
  5. Amending the Financial Institutions Act and the Financial Market Infrastructure Law to make them more flexible towards blockchain initiatives.

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