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俄罗斯:加密货币法律框架迟迟未出台,律师协会决定“自食其力”

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俄罗斯:加密货币法律框架迟迟未出台,律师协会决定“自食其力”

目前,随着加密货币越来越受欢迎,涉及数字经济的案件也日益增多,然而,目前俄罗斯还没有一个全面的针对加密货币的监管框架。

法律委员会将解决因缺乏监管条款而引起的案件

在围绕这些问题举行的圆桌会议上,俄罗斯律师协会(Russian Lawyers Association)和一个名为区块链律师团(Blockchain Lawyers)的教育组织同意成立一个专门委员会,以应对加密行业因缺乏法律而产生的难题。它还将与诸如区块链开发、人工智能、量子技术和物联网等其他相关行业的公司进行合作。

比如,委员会成员希望帮助该行业的项目和组织应对一些会计和税收相关事宜。俄罗斯政府目前将加密货币定义为“其他财产(other property)”。然而,在一些通过ICO发行代币的例子中,数字货币也可以代表财产权。但问题是,根据俄罗斯目前的税法,这两类税适用不同的税率。

据Taxology律师事务所合伙人Mikhail Uspenskiy表示,在俄罗斯立法者最终通过新法律明确界定加密货币和代币的法律性质之前,有效保存会计记录将极其困难。然而,俄罗斯议会国家杜马(State Duma) 下院已经推迟了对今年春天提交的法案的审议。

俄罗斯对加密货币的监管方式趋于保守

在对原始草案进行了一系列修改之后,俄罗斯代表最终从《数字金融资产法案》(On Digital Financial Assets)的主要法案中删除了“加密货币”和“挖矿”等几个关键术语。加密行业的代表对最新版本提出了抗议,甚至提交了他们自己的替代法案,以赋予加密货币“特殊地位”。

在最近的一份声明中,俄罗斯副总理Maxim Akimov为该国对加密货币的保守监管方式进行了辩护。在谈到最近市场暴跌导致多数去中心化加密货币的市值缩水时,他还表示,俄罗斯当局没有计划对数字资产法律框架草案作出任何更重大的修正。

在圆桌会议上,法律专家还讨论了其他一些相关议题,例如规范加密行业执法的必要性,以及保护加密货币持有人的权利等。预计新的委员会也将处理这些问题,并将在俄罗斯律师协会莫斯科地区分枝机构内运作。

In the absence of a comprehensive regulatory framework for cryptocurrencies in Russia, lawyers have taken matters into their own hands. A new advisory body of legal experts will look into cases where the current legislation does not reflect the specifics of the growing digital economy and propose solutions.

Legal Commission to Solve Problems Stemming From the Lack of Proper Rules

During a round table discussion on these issues, the Russian Lawyers Association and an educational organization called Blockchain Lawyers have agreed to establish a specialized commission that will address the legal challenges in the crypto industry. It will also work with companies in other related sectors such as blockchain development, artificial intelligence, quantum technologies and the internet of things.

The commission’s main task will be to provide answers to outstanding questions and solve problems arising from the lack of proper crypto regulations, the Russian outlet Bitcrypto News reported. The participants in the round table expressed confidence that the new body will be able to give legal definitions to many new economic and technological phenomena in the digital space.

The members of the commission will help projects and organizations in the industry to overcome specific challenges. Some of them are related to accounting and taxation, for example. The Russian government currently treats cryptocurrencies as “other property.” In the case of ICO tokens, however, the digital coins can also represent property rights. The problem is that the Russian tax code applies different rates to these two categories.

According to Mikhail Uspenskiy, partner at the law firm Taxology, keeping accounting records competently will be extremely difficult until Russian lawmakers finally adopt new laws to clearly define the legal nature of cryptocurrencies and tokens. However, the lower house of Russia’s parliament, the State Duma, has postponed the adoption of the legislation that was filed this past spring.

Russian Authorities Favor Conservative Approach to Crypto Regulation

After introducing a number of changes to the original texts, Russian deputies eventually dropped several key terms such as “cryptocurrency” and “mining” from the main bill, the law “On Digital Financial Assets.” Representatives of the crypto industry protested against its latest version and even proposed their own, alternative bill that grants cryptocurrencies a “special status.”

In a recent statement, Russia’s deputy prime minister Maxim Akimov defended the conservative regulatory approach. Commenting on the recent market slump that decreased the capitalization of most decentralized cryptocurrencies, he also said that authorities in Moscow do not plan to introduce any more significant amendments to the draft legal framework.

During the round table, the legal experts discussed a number of other related topics such as the need to regulate law enforcement in the crypto industry and provide protection for the rights of cryptocurrency holders. The new commission is expected to deal with these issues as well. The body will operate within the Moscow regional branch of the Russian Lawyers Association.

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