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日本:发布加密货币行业最新监管草案

近日,日本金融厅发布了一份报告草案,其中概述了加密货币的最新监管政策。且该报告中还包含了一些现行法律尚未涉及领域(包括黑客攻击事件、自我监管、已认定交易商、隐私代币以及保证金交易等)的监管措施。

新的加密监管框架

上周五,日本最高金融监管机构金融厅(FSA)发布了一份报告草案,其中概述了国家对于加密货币和首次代币发行(ICO)的最新监管框架。金融厅的第11次研究小组会议对此报告进行了讨论,且此报告中也包含了机构前10次小组会议的建议。据当地媒体报道,报告中的措施并没有受到重大反对,因此预计日本金融厅将很快根据其中内容进行相关法规起草。

此报告中所涉及的一个重要领域就是预防并处理黑客攻击事件(例如1月份的Coincheck和9月份的Zaif黑客攻击事件)。金融厅将要求加密货币交易所加强对客户资产的管理和维护(例如密钥管理)。为了对消费者进行保护,金融厅规定:交易所的净资产应等于或大于黑客攻击事件中损失货币的价值和还款基金。文件中还对加密货币交易所的破产对策进行了概述。

自我监管

金融厅解释道,该机构已经见识到了创新技术的迅速变化,并意识到了与已认证的自我监管组织合作的重要性。对此金融厅表示:

“出于此原因,我们将敦促各方成员加入已认证的自我监管协会,并根据他们的规则开发出对应的系统”。

今年10月份,日本虚拟货币兑换协会(JVCEA)获得了金融厅的认证,成为了可进行合法自我监管的组织。

报告中还指出:金融厅认为拒绝或取消那些既不加入已认证协会,也不建立内部自我监管制度的运营商的注册是合理且合适的。

已认定交易商

报告中还提到了“已认定交易商”,也就是那些已经获得批准,允许经营加密货币交易所且他们的应用程序也一直处于审查状态的公司。目前此类企业包括Coincheck、Lastroots以及Everybody’s Bitcoin。报告中也指出,目前有许多公司正在积极的进行广告宣传,而其业务也在迅速增长,但他们的客户或许并不知道这些公司是否已经获得了许可。

对此,金融厅提出了一系列的措施。首先,这些企业在获得许可证之前不允许继续扩大他们的业务,也不可以上市其他额外的代币。同时,获取新客户,或为获取新客户进行广告宣传等活动也是不允许的。并且这些企业必须在他们的官方网站上发布他们的注册状态。

其他措施

报告中所提到的其他措施包括将要对隐私代币上市、衍生品交易以及保证金交易等进行限制。

此外,报告还对ICO的监管进行了讨论。金融厅对此表示:

“《证券交易法》或将适用于ICO监管,我们也正在实施行政措施。根据代币的结构,或将使用《金融商品交易法》或《基金结算法》来进行监管。”

文件中还表明,金融厅认为第三方组织建立监管框架,并对代币发行商的业务和金融状况进行审查的方式将更为合适。

此外,报告中还涉及了不受现行法律监管的加密货币托管业务。金融厅对此提出了一些应对措施,比如引入注册系统、维护内部控制系统、在发生黑客攻击事件时发布应对政策、保管偿还基金,以及将加密货币、客户和交易所分开管理等。

Japan’s Financial Services Agency has published its draft report outlining new cryptocurrency regulations. The report contains measures in areas that are not currently addressed in existing laws such as hacking incidents, self-regulation, deemed dealers, privacy coins, and margin trading.

New Crypto Regulatory Framework

Japan’s top financial regulator, the Financial Services Agency (FSA), published a draft report outlining the country’s new regulatory framework for cryptocurrencies and initial coin offerings (ICOs) on Friday. The report, which was discussed at the agency’s 11th study group meeting, contains recommendations from the previous 10 study group meetings. According to local media, there was no major objection to the proposed measures in the report so the FSA is expected to draft regulations based on its content.

One major area in the report concerns preventing and dealing with hacking incidents such as the hacks of two major Japanese crypto exchanges — Coincheck in January and Zaif in September. The FSA will require crypto exchanges to strengthen the “management and maintenance of customer property,” such as the management of private keys. For consumer protection, the FSA states that it is necessary for exchanges to have net assets “equal to or more than the amount equivalent to the currency and repayment funds” in the event of a hack. The document also outlines countermeasures against crypto exchanges going bankrupt.

Self-Regulation

he FSA explains that it recognizes the rapidly changing technological innovation and sees the importance of collaborating with accredited self-regulatory organizations. “For this reason, we urge members to join the certified [self-regulatory] association” and develop systems according to their rules, the FSA wrote. In October, the Japan Virtual Currency Exchange Association (Jvcea) obtained accreditation from the FSA to be able to legally enforce self-regulatory rules.

The document also explains that the FSA deems it appropriate to refuse or cancel the registration of operators that neither join “the accredited association and conform to the self-regulation” nor establish their own internal systems to comply with the self-regulatory rules.

Deemed Dealers

The report also addresses “deemed dealers,” which are companies that have been allowed to operate crypto exchanges while their applications are being reviewed. Currently, there are three of them: Coincheck, Lastroots, and Everybody’s Bitcoin. The report points out that some of them have been aggressively advertising and rapidly growing their businesses, but many of their customers are not aware that they are not registered.

The FSA has proposed a number of measures for them. Firstly, they cannot expand their businesses or list additional coins until they are registered. Moreover, they can neither acquire new customers nor advertise or solicit for the purpose of acquiring new customers. They must also post a notice on their websites about the status of their registration.

Some Other Measures

Among other measures outlined in the report are restrictions on privacy coin listings, transactions in derivatives, and margin trading.

In addition, the report discusses ICO regulation. ICOs “can be subject to the securities regulation,” the FSA noted, adding that “We are implementing administrative measures.” Depending on their structure, tokens may be subject to regulation by the Financial Instruments and Exchange Act or the Fund Settlement Act. The document also reveals that the FSA finds it appropriate for third-party organizations to establish a framework and examine token issuers’ businesses and financial situations.

Additionally, the report addresses crypto custody businesses which do not fall under existing laws. The FSA has proposed measures such as introducing a registration system, maintaining an internal control system, separating the management of exchanges’ and customers’ cryptocurrencies, publishing response policies in case of hacking incidents, and retaining funds for repayment.

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