最有看点的互联网金融门户

最有看点的互联网金融门户
专栏国际资讯

不得使用Aadhaar数据信息,印度企业开始寻找客户认证新模式

专栏国际资讯

不得使用Aadhaar数据信息,印度企业开始寻找客户认证新模式

假想你在一条丘陵路上平稳地行驶,突然山体滑坡阻挡了前路,不得不急刹车,旅程一下子断开,不知如何才能到达目的地。印度最高法院宣布Aadhaar判决之后,印度金融科技行业就处于这样的状态。

印度最高法院9月26日公布裁决,禁止私人公司访问生物识别数据库。由于Aadhaar仅收入象征性费用,可远程接入农村市场和城市贫困地区,因此禁用对银行业和更广泛的金融服务业造成了沉重打击。

此后,科技公司一直在寻找可行的替代方案。印度唯一身份标识管理局(UIDAI)提出了一种新方法,该方法可以管理Aadhaar和管理离线公民登记。按照流程,在线访问Aadhaar号码的任何实体都必须从UIDAI网站下载新的QR码或XML格式。这种方法可以保护公民生物识别数据安全,保护12位唯一识别号码的私密性。

然而,金融科技行业对这个选项兴致不高。

IDfy是一家提供身份验证服务的孟买科技创业公司,其首席执行官Ashok Hariharan表示,"Aadhaar XML过程包含许多步骤,包括获取一次性密码(OTP)、选择一系列权限并下载XML文件,然后才能将作为ID使用。整个过程非常复杂。如果有其他选择,大多数用户会选择使用其他身份证件而不是Aadhaar。"

业内人士称,另一个问题是远端地点的互联网带宽有限,在线过程页面跳转可能会出现卡顿。此外,在许多情况下,手机号码与Aadhaar数据库中的号码并不匹配。

"下载XML文件和新的QR代码将成为最后一英里挑战,因为需要用户完成基于OTP的身份验证,才能下载文件,如果客户使用不同的手机服务,身份认证就可能会失败。"Fino Payments Bank产品负责人Ashish Ahuja表示。

客户吸纳

金融科技实体面临的最大挑战是远程吸纳客户。使用Aadhaar,消费者无须填写大量文书,即使距离遥远也可以通过智能手机或电脑获取服务。

"对我们来说最大的问题是在注册过程中客户突然不见了,而Aadhaar在很大程度上解决了这个问题,"一家位于班加罗尔、提供投资解决方案的匿名金融科技公司高级主管表示,"消费者可以在几秒钟内填好表格,通过Aadhaar搞定文件的数字签名,通过生物识别技术完成身份验证,这个过程只占实际成本的很小一部分。"

受益于此的公司包括Capital Float、Lendingkart、Early Salary等数字贷款公司,还包括Zerodha等希望以数字方式贴近消费者的投资创业公司。

"如果必须人工实收集文件,成本就会大大增加。此外,也很有可能时常发生文件填写错误,"Zerodha首席执行官Nithin Kamath表示,"如果漏了一个签名,代理人必须走上很远才能让当事人补上。"

无论是Kotak的811计划还是印度国家银行通过YONO吸引新一代客户的构想,都表明银行也是通过数字方式为客户提供服务。

Kotak Mahindra Bank首席数字官Deepak Sharma表示,"我们正在努力实现流程数字化,进一步实现分支机构无纸化。而现在只有直接利益转移(DBT)客户才能使用Aadhaar数据,我们必须从头开始创建无缝客户体验。"

除了金融科技公司和传统银行外,支付银行感受的压力也不小。国家委托这些实体向群众普及数字支付。例如,Fino Payments Bank依靠Aadhaar为主体为移民工人或农村贫困人口的客户提供服务。而现在客户吸纳费用将达到从前的五倍,人工收集文件方面的费用尤甚。

"Aadhaar的无缝性大大加快了开户流程。此外,对于我们的客户群来说,Aadhaar简便易得。他们没办法提供其他证明文件。"来自Fino Payments Bank的Ahuja表示。

定期付款问题

受到移动钱包和统一支付接口(UPI)影响,数字支付越来越普遍,但是定期付款过程仍然需要人工介入,包括为互惠基金支付等值每月分期付款(EMI)和系统投资计划(SIP)等。印度国家支付公司(NPCI)通过基于国家自动清算所(NACH)平台的电子授权系统解决这个问题。

消费者也无须填写大量文书,可以通过发布电子授权,使用生物识别数据库从帐户中自动扣款。NPCI表示,由于法院的命令,不得不在上个月停止所有的电子自动清算(eNACH)授权,并要求所有银行移至网上银行和借记卡授权。

PayU India公司运营"现在购买,以后支付"的名为LazyPay的产品,其总经理Jitendra Gupta表示,"eNach是从客户LazyPay贷款账户中扣款的主要模式,现在已被终止,运营侧被完全打乱。"

Gupta表示,银行必须人工验证客户签名,大大影响了周转时间和成本效率。"整个过程需要10-15天,而之前仅需要两秒钟。此外,收集NACH的成本急剧增加,严重影响了用户体验。"

一位资深银行从业人员表示,如果客户从网上发起流程,那么假设他或她可以熟练使用网上银行或借记卡作为支付工具。银行启用其他模式eNACH,就可以解决这个问题。"但是,现在需要大量文书工作,过程就变得非常麻烦了。"

商业不确定性

这些问题对商业环境产生了不利影响,损害了企业家开展创新业务的信心。 很多业务是建立在Aadhaar之上的,这些业务通过Jan Dhan帐户、手机和唯一识别号码帮助穷人享受金融普惠。而最高法院的判决突然改变了这一切。

PayNearby公司声称支撑了超过28%的Aadhaar银行支付,其总经理Anand Kumar Bajaj表示, "企业投入大量资金,在零售店安装加密狗,识别客户生物识别技术数据。而现在这一切都没用了。"

印度储备银行要求支付公司完成完整的"了解您的客户"(KYC)流程。当钱包公司发出开展KYC成本过高的呼声,国家告诉他们去投资eKYC模式,以节省成本。

一家支付公司的匿名高级管理人员表示,"现在我们没有eKYC,几个月之后就是半KYC钱包转换成完整KYC钱包的最后期限了。我们不知道替代方法何时会生效。"

2月28日是完整KYC钱包转化的最后期限,否则将会失效。

许多早期创业公司也通过客户认证业务蓬勃发展。 DigiO、Idfy和Khosla Labs等实体作为金融服务提供商Zerodha、PayU India等的中间机构安身立命。

"Aadhaar服务中断后,收入降幅超过了30%。我们不得不寻找替代机制维持商业模式运行,"IDfy的Ashok Hariharan表示,"我们还有一个子认证用户代理(AUA)许可证,现在也失效了。对我们来说也是一种损失。"

然而,Hariharan表示,业务不能停滞,作为一家科技公司,IDfy通过视频和机器学习功能开展创新,探索其他方式完成客户验证。

现在怎么办?

来自Kotak Mahindra Bank的Sharma表示,"我们正在寻找可靠的替代机制,离线Aadhaar看起来是仅次于最佳解决方案的方案。我们正在与NPCI合作开发其他方法,例如通过网上银行或借记卡授权完成授权,作为eNACH的替代方案。"

来自Zerodha的Kamath也表示,该公司已转向视频KYC和DigiLocker,并计划转向基于XML的KYC和视频,以吸纳客户。他说,目前可能会出现更高的客户下滑率,但公司必须承受。

公司面临的另一个主要问题是前端员工培训。在过去几年中,随着流程的数字化,中介人员和员工学会了转用平板电脑和智能手机来使用eKYC,现在他们必须返回到纸张或XML和视频等其他形式。

Fino Payments Bank依靠银行中介人员与偏远农村地区人群建立联系,该银行的Ahuja表示,"培训员工使用eKYC花费了不少时间。现在我们必须在其他模式下重新开展培训,最后一英里的识字率始终是一项挑战。"

许多创业公司的另一个趋势是从在线产品转向全渠道产品。普华永道印度公司的金融科技领导人Vivek Belgavi表示,"商家重新开始收购。"

银行可以回头,改变发展方向,因为他们主要为了试验科技产品,但对于在许多情况下可能无法获得投资者支持的早期实体来说,情况可能更加棘手。

Google、WhatsApp和中国企业等资金雄厚的大型技术企业开始进入印度金融科技领域,使得本土科技创业公司前路维艰。除了来自全球参与者的竞争,监管环境也不断变化,本土公司不得不在这两条战线上同时战斗。

正如一家数字贷款创业公司的创始人所说,可以坐下来为失去的东西懊悔,也可以拾起石块、清理道路并向前走。状况由不得你停下懊恼,所以印度公司正在积极寻找替代商业模式。

普华永道的Belgavi表示,"JAM(Jan Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile)只是第一次介入,金融科技领域需要更多这样的介入。必须调动各方面力量,无论是政策、创新还是技术,来解决金融普惠问题。"

Imagine driving steadily on a hilly road and suddenly having to brake hard as a landslide blocks the path ahead, leaving the journey incomplete and the destination elusive. This gives a sense of the state India’s financial technology or fintech industry found itself in after the Supreme Court’s Aadhaar judgement.

The apex court’s September 26 ruling barred private companies from accessing the biometric database. It hit the banking and broader financial services sector hard since Aadhaar had provided them with remote access to rural markets and urban poor segments at a nominal cost.

Since then, technology companies have been seeking viable alternatives. A new method has been suggested by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), which administers Aadhaar and manages the offline citizen registry. As per the process, any entity that wishes to access Aadhaar numbers online will have to download either the new QR codes or XML format from the UIDAI website. This would keep citizens’ biometric data safe and protect the privacy of the 12-digit unique identification numbers.

However, the fintech industry has not been enthused by this option.

“The Aadhaar XML journey has many steps including obtaining an OTP (one-time password), selecting a range of permissions and downloading the XML file before actually using it as an ID. Such a journey is extremely complicated,” said Ashok Hariharan, chief executive, IDfy, a Mumbai-based tech startup that provides authentication services. “Presented with a choice, most users would prefer to use other ID cards rather than Aadhaar at this point.”

Another issue, according to the industry, is internet bandwidth in remote locations which might make any online process across multiple hops cumbersome. Moreover, in many cases, mobile numbers do not match those in the Aadhaar database.

“The XML file and the new QR code need to be downloaded, which will be a challenge for the last mile, especially since it will need OTP-based authentication for the user which will fail in case of the customer using a different mobile service,” said Ashish Ahuja, head of products at Fino Payments Bank.

Customer Onboarding

The biggest challenge for such entities is to onboard customers remotely. Aadhaar allowed consumers to avoid lengthy paperwork and get services through their smartphones or computers even from faraway places.

“The biggest problem for us was customers dropping off in the middle of the registration process – Aadhaar had largely solved that for us,” said a senior executive of a Bengaluru-based fintech firm, which offers investment solutions, speaking on condition of anonymity. “Consumers could fill up forms in a few seconds, digitally sign the documents through Aadhaar and authenticate themselves through biometrics – all this at a fraction of the real cost.”

Among the companies that benefited from this were digital lending firms such as Capital Float, Lendingkart, Early Salary and even investment startups like Zerodha that were trying to reach out to consumers digitally.

“If a person has to physically collect documents, it pushes up cost. Also, chances of errors in filling up these documents are many,” said Zerodha CEO Nithin Kamath. “Imagine, if one signature is missed, then the agent has to travel again to get that done.”

Even banks were onboarding customers digitally, be it Kotak’s 811 scheme or State Bank of India's proposition to the new generation customers through YONO.

“We are trying to take processes digital as much as possible, even making our branches paperless,” said Deepak Sharma, chief digital officer at Kotak Mahindra Bank. “Now, with the limitation of Aadhaar seeding only for DBT (direct benefit transfer) customers, we have to go back to the drawing board to build seamless customer experience.”

Besides fintech firms and traditional banks, another segment that is feeling the pinch is payment banks. These entities were mandated to take digital payments to the masses. Fino Payments Bank, for instance, relied heavily on Aadhaar to serve its customers, who are mostly migrant workers or rural poor. Such entities may now have to incur five times the customer onboarding cost, especially with physical collection of documents.

“The seamlessness of Aadhaar helped us ramp up our account opening process. Further, for our segment of customers Aadhaar was ubiquitous. They hardly have other documents to furnish,” said Ahuja of Fino Payments Bank.

Problem of Recurring Payments

While consumer payments went the digital way, driven mainly by mobile wallets and Unified Payments Interface (UPI), recurring payments still required manual intervention. These could include paying equated monthly instalments (EMI) and systematic investment plans (SIP) for mutual funds. This issue was resolved by the National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) through the electronic mandate system based on the NACH (National Automated Clearing House) platform.

Consumers could again avoid lengthy paperwork and issue an e-mandate to allow automatic debit or credit from their accounts by using the biometric database. NPCI said that it would halt all eNACH mandates last month because of the court order and requested all banks to move to internet banking and debit card based mandates.

“eNach, which was a primary mode to debit a customer’s account for LazyPay loans, has been stopped. This has led to complete chaos on operations side,” said Jitendra Gupta, managing director at PayU India, which runs the buy now, pay later product named LazyPay.

Gupta said the requirement of a signature from the customer, which needs to be manually verified by banks, has affected the turnaround time as well as cost efficiency. “The whole process takes 10-15 days while the earlier process got completed in two seconds. Further, cost of collecting NACH has increased multifold, having a serious impact on user experience,” he said.

A senior banker said if the customer is being originated online, then the assumption is that he or she is comfortable with net banking or debit card as a payment instrument. Once banks go live with alternative modes of eNACH, the problem would be solved. “But, yes, there will be paperwork now, and that is what makes the processes extremely cumbersome,” he said.

Uncertainty in Business

Such issues have had an adverse impact on the business environment and the confidence of entrepreneurs to launch innovative businesses. Businesses were built on Aadhaar, which helped bring the financially excluded into the fold through Jan Dhan accounts, connected through mobile phones and identified through the unique identification numbers. The apex court judgement abruptly changed all that.

“A lot of money has been invested by companies in installing dongles at retail outlets to read customer biometrics. Now, all that will be rendered useless,” said Anand Kumar Bajaj, managing director at PayNearby, which claims to facilitate more than 28% of all Aadhaar-enabled payments for banks.

Payment companies were mandated by the Reserve Bank of India to complete full KYC (know-your-customer) process for their customers. When the wallet companies raised their voice regarding the prohibitive cost of doing KYC, they were told to invest in eKYC modes which were cheaper.

“Now we do not have eKYC and the deadline to convert semi KYC wallets into full KYC ones is just a couple of months away. We have no idea when the alternate methods will be made effective,” said a senior executive of a payments company, requesting not to be identified.

February 28 is the deadline for conversion of wallets into full KYC ones to prevent them from becoming defunct.

Many early-stage startups also sprouted in the business of authenticating customers. Entities such as DigiO, Idfy and Khosla Labs were acting as intermediaries for financial services providers Zerodha, PayU India and others.

“When the Aadhaar route stopped, our revenues fell more than 30%. This made us to look for alternative mechanisms to keep our business models running,” said Ashok Hariharan of IDfy. “We had even got a sub-AUA (authentication user agency) licence, which is now useless. That was a loss for us as well.”

However, Hariharan said that business had to go on and as a tech company IDfy innovated to other modes of authenticating customers through videos and machine learning capabilities.

What Now?

“We are looking at credible alternative mechanisms and offline Aadhaar is looking like the next best solution. As an alternative to eNACH, we are working with NPCI to develop other methods such as mandate creation via netbanking or debit card-based mandate,” said Sharma of Kotak Mahindra Bank.

Kamath from Zerodha also said that the company had switched to video KYC and DigiLocker, and was planning to shift to XML-based KYC and video for onboarding customers. The company might see a higher drop-off rate but it has to live with that, he said.

Another major problem for companies is training their front-end employees. In the past few years, with processes having gone digital, agents and employees had learnt to switch to tablets and smartphones for using eKYC. Now they have to get back to either paper or other modes such as XML and video.

“Training employees in modes of eKYC took time. Now we have to retrain them in other modes – literacy in the last-mile is always a challenge,” said Ahuja of Fino Payments Bank, which relies on bank agents to reach out to far-flung rural areas.

Another trend in the making for many startups is a shift from online only to omnichannel offerings. “Merchant acquisition is back in business,” said Vivek Belgavi, fintech leader at PwC India.

Though banks, which are mostly experimenting with tech products, can still go back and change the path, it might be more challenging for early-stage entities which may not get investor support in many cases.

The industry is also seeing the entry of large tech players such as Google, WhatsApp and Chinese entities which have a lot of capital to deploy. This makes life even more difficult for home-grown tech startups. Besides competition from global players, with the changing regulatory landscape these companies are now forced to fight battles on both fronts.

As a founder of a digital lending startup said, one can either sit back and rue what is lost or pick up the pebbles and clear the road and move ahead. Since the former is not an option, companies are actively scouting for alternative business models.

“JAM (Jan Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile) was just the first intervention. There is need for many more such interventions in the fintech space,” said Belgavi of PwC. “All the forces need to come in, be it policy, innovation or technology, for financial inclusion problems to be solved.”

本文系未央网专栏作者栀航发表,属作者个人观点,不代表网站观点,未经许可严禁转载,违者必究!

用微信扫描可以分享至好友和朋友圈

扫描二维码或搜索微信号“iweiyangx”
关注未央网官方微信公众号,获取互联网金融领域前沿资讯。

发表评论

发表评论

您的评论提交后会进行审核,审核通过的留言会展示在下方留言区域,请耐心等待。

评论

您的个人信息不会被公开,请放心填写! 标记为的是必填项

取消

栀航 | 未央团队未央编辑团队

74
总文章数

TA还没写个人介绍。。。

印度P2P借贷及数字支付公司Instamojo完成775万美元B轮融资

Tarush Bha... | 移动支付网 1天前

伦敦金融科技创企Jaja Finance完成500万英镑融资

Emily Nico... | CITY A.M. 2天前

韩国FSC主席:承诺放松监管,支持金融科技企业发展

Claudia 2天前

从8项监管新规看2019亚洲金融科技走向

Claudia 01-16

“废钞令”发布两年之后,印度无现金社会发展状况如何?

Deepa Kris... 01-15

版权所有 © 清华大学五道口金融学院互联网金融实验室 | 京ICP备17044750号-1