最有看点的互联网金融门户

最有看点的互联网金融门户
全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯

2018年最值得关注的三大颠覆性金融科技技术

全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯

2018年最值得关注的三大颠覆性金融科技技术

Juniper Research近日发布报告称,数据挖掘(data mining)、去中心化应用程序(decentralized apps,也被称为Dapps)和量子计算(quantum computing)的报告称,《一般数据保护条例》这三种技术有望在未来五年内颠覆整个金融科技市场。

《一般数据保护条例》时代的数据挖掘

欧盟的《一般数据保护条例》(GDPR)旨在保护公民的个人身份信息(personally identifiable information, PII),提供信息使用过程中的透明性,并赋予人们限制个人身份信息使用或要求全部信息被删除或“被遗忘”的权利。

目前来看,区块链技术有望帮助企业遵守《一般数据保护条例》的严格规定。如今,区块链技术风暴已经席卷了这个商业世界。电子分布式账本技术可以为交易历史创建一个不可变更的记录,由于是永久性的,使用区块链作为与PII进行交易的一种数据库类型,可能会与《一般数据保护条例》的规则相冲突。但当PII数据从其交易所在的区块链网络分离开来存储时,该技术就成为《一般数据保护条例》合规解决方案的一部分。

《一般数据保护条例》已经生效,金融科技企业非常清楚,数据泄露的后果将比以往任何时候都更加严重,他们需要将保持客户的许可放在营销活动、营销战略的首位。数据泄露不只会导致大量的媒体报道,导致客户流失,甚至为企业带来巨额罚款。根据《一般数据保护条例》,罚款金额上限是企业总收入的4%或2350万美元(以较大的金额为准)。

但《一般数据保护条例》不只能处理重大泄露。每当有人行使自己的“被遗忘权”,数据库的记录就必须被删除。如果区块链是这个系统的一部分,那么商业区块链管理员就需要确保所有的“在链”数据都失去意义。幸运的是,有一个简单地方法可以做到这一点。

密码数据删除法就是删除与信息绑定的hash keys。虽然数据可能仍然存在、分布在脱机数据库中,但是如果没有正确地加密密匙,这些数据就无法重新组装起来。在某种意义上,这些数据成为了乱七八糟的数据——这是永久删除数据的一种简单而有效的方法。

对《一般数据保护条例》的大部分关注都锁定在繁琐的合规性要求(compliance requirements)上。但Juniper报告认为,合规要比避免罚款好处更多,因为《一般数据保护条例》将带来大量数据,这些数据的来源真实,而且是以用户选择的透明方式获得的。

Juniper的高级分析师Lauren Foye:“数据收集商有机会建立一种更积极、更开放的消费者数据处理方式,同时也要注意不要辜负用户的信任。这种结合了透明性和真诚性的方式将受到欢迎,因此企业应优先考虑这个方式。那些不这样做的公司将面临巨大的质疑,而且可能会遭到客户的强烈反对。”

这不仅仅是理论上的。过去一年中,数据挖掘业务越来越受到青睐。例如,Facebook剑桥分析丑闻引起了消费者的强烈反弹,甚至对Facebook的股价造成了巨大影响。

“我们在研究中讨论的公司不一定是金融科技公司,还有那些可能和这些公司有金融上合作的企业,以及那些一举一动都对金融科技行业的企业有着举足轻重影响、从而对市场的发展产生破坏性影响的公司。”Foye说。

Juniper在该报告中称:此外,像ShareRoot和Microsoft等企业将从销售数据挖掘技术或《一般数据保护条例》合规技术中获益。ShareRoot提供了基于SaaS的社交媒体营销平台,而Microsoft则计划使其所有业务符合《一般数据保护条例》限制。

去中心化应用程序会爆炸性增长

Juniper报告显示,未来第二个颠覆性技术发展趋势就是去中心化应用程序部署的大幅扩张。

去中心化应用程序以区块链为基础创建了一个创新的开源软件生态系统,既安全又简单。在系统内,可以开发新的在线工具。

Foye说:“去中心化应用程序将利用数千台闲置电脑的能量,在全球范围内的众多机器上共享资源。这些应用将不属于某个独立的实体,而是由社区驱动的。”

就像它的基础——区块链技术一样,去中心化应用程序分布在许多节点上(甚至是数千、数百万之多),这使得它们在对用户完全透明的同时,具有极高的容错能力。

Juniper报告解释道:去中心化应用程序将更加安全,因为分布式将减少黑客攻击和欺诈,因为存储于区块链上的数据不能在以后被更改。

该报告称:“我们相信,这些特性会吸引众多金融机构和第三方尝试将该技术用于某些安全至关重要的实践。”

不少开发人员都已经踏上了Dapp的这趟行业列车。诸如dApp Builder这样的供应商希望提供这样一个平台,允许其他人搭建、分发去中心化应用程序。

dApp Builder平台将允许用户从预先搭建好的智能合约中创建以太坊去中心化应用程序,这意味着不需要编码,应用程序将能够即时部署至区块链。

Juniper指出,这些平台上出现了大量去中心化应用程序,虽然数量多达数千种,但许多似乎都是传统软件、应用程序的克隆件或复制品。例如,微博网站Peepeth就布局和功能来看,跟Twitter很像。

Juniper报告指出:

“然而,去中心化的性质以及所有权的缺失,意味着去中心化应用程序不能合法地被挑战。要想使用该应用程序,用户必须支付少量的以太加密货币,这是许多去中心化应用程序的特性。为了在区块链上记录交易,用户必须支付‘gas费’,作为对矿工记录交易的激励。”。

去中心化应用程序还支持智能合约技术,这是一种自动执行代码。基于去中心化应用程序的供应链试点已经在各行业展开,能够实时自动追踪货物,或是完成房地产等金融交易。

基于区块链的新应用程序经常通过首次代币发行(ICO)来融资,这是基于去中心化应用程序的一种众筹技术,使用加密令牌来换取传统法定货币,或作为使用该应用程序的奖励。

Juniper在报告中称,尽管使用加密令牌作为支付的要求可能会被视为一种障碍,但人们渴望由区块链支持的安全、可被记录的过程,愿意为了利益、为了内心的平静而付出,这种渴望会推动该方式被采用。

Juniper Research预测和咨询主管Windsor Holden说:“这一领域潜力无限。包括IBM、Microsoft和Oracle在内的很多公司都开始了积极探索。”

Holden说,挑战也是有的,互操作性被认为是一个主要问题,尽管现在一些技术供应商提供非区块链的解决方案。

Holden说:“对于比特币、以太坊这种公开的、无需允许区块链来说,安全是一个问题。如果企业避免这些,尤其是,如果他们选择私有区块链(permissioned /private blockchain),那么他们将有更多的控制权。”

区块链排列有很多种,主要分为两类:公开的或私有的。比特币这种公开的区块链允许任何人查看或发送交易,只要它们是共识流程的一部分。

相比之下,私有区块链限制了向一个组织(如公司内的一群员工)的分布式账本写入数据的能力,或者在一些组织中(如同意网络合作的一批银行)写入数据的能力。

还有联盟区块链(consortium blockchain),只有预先选定的节点被授权使用分类是账本。例如,一批银行和他们的清算所可能使用区块链作为交易清算的一部分,其中每个节点都与验证流程中的一个步骤相关联。

量子霸权(Quantum supremacy)

Juniper报告相信,2018年将出现量子霸权,这是一台能够执行传统计算机无法完成或无法实现的任务的量子计算机。

量子计算有望快速解决复杂的算法,重新定义金融科技、物流和研发等领域。

报告建议:“尽管最早到2023年才会出现主流应用,但业内人士应当相应地制定计划以免落后于竞争对手。”

量子计算通过使用电子或光子等基本粒子(在实践中,离子也取得了成功)来工作,其思想是,它们的电荷或偏振表现为0和/或1。每个粒子被称为量子位(quantum bit/qubit),它们构成了量子计算的基础。

Juniper的报告解释称:“因此,量子计算能够解决远比目前的二进制计算机所能解决的更复杂的问题。量子位可以处于0态、1态或是处于这两态,这被称为‘叠加(superposition)’,意味着量子计算机比二进制计算机强大数百万倍,有可能影响和破坏所有行业的进程。”

业内专家此前曾预测,在计算能力方面,承载50个量子位或以上的处理器将是一个里程碑,即便是这样,当时也被认为是几年之后才会发生的事情。

然而,量子计算的发展已经超出了预期。

去年11月,IBM宣布成功测试了一台承载50个量子位的量子计算机,随后,谷歌在今年3月宣布其设计的Bristlecone芯片承载72个量子位。

一旦成功运行,Bristlecone芯片将使量子计算的发展成为可能。

Juniper的报告说:“这比预期要快,人们相信,可承载100个量子位的设备会实现量子霸权,这是一台能够执行传统计算机无法完成或无法实现的任务的量子计算机。”

FinTech will benefit from three technologies that are expected to expand the usefulness of big data, offer more secure and responsive applications and exponentially grow computational performance.

The EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is widely expected to limit the amount of data companies can use for data mining, but new research suggests that it will actually be a boon for the FinTech industry.

One result of the GDPR is that businesses will have access to honestly sourced data from consumers using a transparent opt-in model, which will be a rich source of information for discovering user patterns in large datasets, according to the report from Juniper Research.

Juniper’s report zeroes in on three technologies that will be disruptive to the FinTech market this year and over the next five years: data mining, decentralized apps (also known as Dapps) and quantum computing.

Data mining in the GDPR era

The EU’s GDPR aims to protect citizens’ personally identifiable information (PII), providing transparency around its use and giving people the right to restrict its use or request that it be deleted or “forgotten” all together.

One technology that has emerged as having the potential to assist organizations in complying with GDPR’s stricter rules is blockchain, which has taken the business world by storm. The electronic distributed ledger technology can create an immutable record for recording a history of transactions. Because that data is permanent, using blockchain as a type of database to transact with PII could run afoul of GDPR rules. But when PII data is stored separately from the blockchain network over which it is transacted, the technology becomes part of the solution for GDPR compliance.

With GDPR already in effect, FinTechs are well aware that data breaches will have greater consequences than ever, and they need to keep client consent at the forefront of their marketing campaigns and strategy. Data breaches won’t just draw major media coverage that could cause customers to leave; under GDPR, sizable fines can be levied, as high as 4% of total revenue, or $23.5 million, whichever is larger.

But GDPR isn’t just about major breaches. Anytime someone exercises his or her “right to be forgotten,” database records will have to be deleted. And if blockchain is part of the system, a business blockchain administrator will need to ensure that any “on-chain” records become meaningless; fortunately, there’s a simple method for doing that.

Deleting hash keys tied to information is known as cryptographic data deletion. While the data may still exist, spread across offline databases, it cannot be reassembled without the correct cryptographic keys. In a sense, it becomes gibberish?—?a simple and effective method of deleting data permanently.

Much of the attention given to GDPR has been on the onerous compliance requirements. But Juniper believes that compliance will have an upside beyond avoiding fines because GDPR will result in a wealth of data that has been sourced honestly and in a transparent manner that users will have opted into.

“There is the opportunity for data collectors to build a more positive and open approach to consumer data while being wary of betraying user trust,” said Juniper senior analyst Lauren Foye. “Such an approach, combining transparency and honesty, will be well-received, so businesses should seek to prioritize this; those that do not will face considerable suspicion and, potentially, a customer backlash.”

That’s not merely theoretic. Data mining operations have come under increased scrutiny over the past year. For example, the Facebook/Cambridge Analytica scandal caused a significant backlash by consumers and even severely depressed Facebook’s share price.

“The companies we discuss in the research are not necessarily FinTechs themselves; rather these are businesses who may partner with those in finance or those whose actions will have significant repercussions for FinTech players in the space, thus disruptive players impacting the market moving forward,” Foye said.

In addition, businesses such as ShareRoot, which provides a SaaS-based social media marketing platform, and Microsoft, which plans to impose GDPR restrictions across all of its operations, would benefit by selling technology for data mining or GDPR compliance, Juniper said in its report.

Decentralized apps will explode

The second disruption in the coming year will be a significant expansion in the deployment of dentralized apps (Dapps), Juniper said.

Using blockchain as their foundation, Dapps create an innovative open-source software ecosystem, both secure and easy, in which to develop new online tools, according to Juniper.

“Dapps will pool resources across numerous machines globally, harnessing the power of thousands of idle computers,” Foye said. “The results are applications which do not belong to a sole entity, [but] rather are community-driven.”

Like the blockchain technology they run on, Dapps are distributed across many nodes (sometimes even thousands or millions), making them extremely fault-tolerant while also transparent to users.

Dapps will be more secure, Juniper explained, because decentralization will make hacking and fraud less prevalent because data stored on the blockchain cannot be altered and changed at a later date.

“We believe that these features will lead numerous financial players and third parties to seek to utilize the technology for practices where security is paramount,” Juniper’s report stated.

Developers have been quick to jump on board with Dapps. Providers such as dApp Builder are hoping to offer a platform that allows others to build and distribute Dapps.

The dApp Builder platform, Juniper explained, will allow users to create Ethereum Dapps from pre-built smart contracts, which means no coding will be required and apps will be instantly deployed to a blockchain. Juniper noted that there are numerous Dapps emerging on those platforms, running into the thousands, though many of these appear to be clones or copies of more traditional software and applications.

Microblogging site Peepeth, for example, is a Dapp that looks similar to Twitter in its layout and functions.

“Yet the decentralized nature and lack of ownership means the [Dapp] cannot be challenged legally. To use the app, users must pay a small amount of Ether cryptocurrency, as is the feature of many of these Dapps,” Juniper’s report said. “For transactions to be recorded on the blockchain, users are required to ‘pay gas’ as an incentive for miners to record transactions.”

Dapps also power smart contract technology?—?self-executing code for business automation. Supply chain pilots based on Dapps that automatically track cargo in real time or complete real estate and other financial transactions are already being rolled out across industries.

New blockchain-based applications often find their funding via initial coin offerings (ICOs), a crowdfunding technology based on Dapps that uses cryptographic tokens (crypto tokens) in exchange for traditional fiat money or as a reward for using the app.

While the requirement to use crypto-based tokens as payment could be seen as a barrier, the desire for a secure, recorded series of processes powered by blockchain will drive adoption, with users willing to spend for the benefit as well as for peace of mind, Juniper said in its report.

“There is significant potential. A large number of players, including IBM, Microsoft, and Oracle, are exploring these areas,” said Windsor Holden, head of forecasting and consultancy at Juniper Research.

On the challenge side, interoperability is perceived to be a major issue, although a number of technology providers are now offering blockchain-agnostic solutions to address those problems, Holden said.

“Security is more of an issue on public, un-permissioned chains like bitcoin and Ethereum. If players avoid these?—?particularly if they opt for private [blockchains]?—?then they have far more control,” Holden said.

There are a variety of blockchain permutations, and they fall mainly into one of two categories: public or permissioned (private). Public blockchains, such as bitcoin, allow anyone to see or send transactions as long as they’re part of the consensus process.

Private blockchains, in contrast, restrict the ability to write to a distributed ledger to one organization, such as a group of employees within a corporation, or between a set number of organizations, such as a group of banks that agree to a network partnership.

There are also consortium blockchains, where only a pre-selected number of nodes are authorized to use the ledger. For example, a group of banks and their clearinghouse might use blockchain as part of trade-clearing, where each node is associated with a step in the verification process.

Quantum supremacy

Juniper believes 2018 will see quantum supremacy, a quantum computer that can carry out tasks that are not possible or practical with a traditional computer.

Quantum computing holds the promise of rapidly solving complex algorithms, redefining areas such as FinTech, logistics, and research and development.

“While mainstream use is unlikely until 2023 at the earliest, industry players should plan accordingly, to avoid falling behind rivals,” the report advised.

Quantum computing works by using elemental particles such as electrons or photons (in practice, success has also been achieved with ions), with the idea that either their charge or polarization acts as a representation of 0 and/or 1. Each of these particles is known as a quantum bit, or qubit, and how these behave forms the basis of quantum computing.

“As a result, quantum computing has the ability to solve far more complex problems than current binary computers can handle, with qubits able to be in a state of 1, 0, or even both,” Juniper explained in its report. “This is known as ‘superposition’ and means that quantum computers are millions of times more powerful than binary machines and have the potential to affect and disrupt processes across all industries.”

Industry experts had previously predicted that processors of 50 qubits or more would prove a milestone in terms of computation ability, and even those were seen as several years away. Quantum computing development, however, has exceeded expectations.

In November, IBM successfully tested a 50-qubit quantum computer; that was followed by Google’s March announcement of its Bristlecone chipdesign, capable of 72 qubits.

Once successfully operational, the Bristlecone chip will enable the development of quantum algorithms.

“This has happened quicker than was expected,” Juniper said. “It is believed that quantum supremacy, ‘the demonstration of a quantum computer that can carry out tasks that are not possible or practical with a traditional computer,’ will be obtained with a 100-qubit device.”

用微信扫描可以分享至好友和朋友圈

扫描二维码或搜索微信号“iweiyangx”
关注未央网官方微信公众号,获取互联网金融领域前沿资讯。

发表评论

发表评论

您的评论提交后会进行审核,审核通过的留言会展示在下方留言区域,请耐心等待。

评论

您的个人信息不会被公开,请放心填写! 标记为的是必填项

取消

日本三菱日联金融公司设立1.85亿美元金融科技风投基金

Finextra | FINEXTRA 1天前

英国脱欧在即,跨境转账创企申请比利时牌照

Paul Sawer... | VENTURE BE... 01-10

你以为的跨境转账平台,可能只是个骗局

MM 01-10

印尼创投的2019,金融科技将成主角

Khamila Mu... 01-10

那些年,国际金融公司投资过的金融科技创企(非洲篇)

MM 01-10

版权所有 © 清华大学五道口金融学院互联网金融实验室 | 京ICP备17044750号-1