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彭博社:“开放银行”时代还未真正到来

专栏传统金融的互联网化国际资讯

彭博社:“开放银行”时代还未真正到来

一年前,在欧洲立法者的推动下,消费者迎来了"开放银行"时代,贷款公司和金融科技创业公司都预言,将会发生翻天覆地的变化。消费者授权的情况下,银行有史以来第一次必须与竞争对手分享账户数据。

在英国,四大银行控制着75%的存款,政客们对法律鼓励新竞争者这一目标兴致勃勃。

但2018年1月13日欧盟实施支付服务指令2(后文简称PSD2)以来,英国银行业看起来并没有发生什么变化。汇丰控股有限公司(HSBC Holdings Plc)、巴克莱银行(Barclays Plc)、苏格兰皇家银行集团(Royal Bank of Scotland Group)和劳埃德银行集团(Lloyds Banking Group Plc)包括活期账户、商业贷款和抵押贷款在内的重要市场份额并没有因为新竞争者的出现显示明显下降的迹象。英国金融行为监管局(Financial Conduct Authority)数据显示,与2017年的12个相比,2018年仅发行了4个新的银行牌照。

总部位于伦敦的数字银行Starling Bank Ltd.的创始人兼首席执行官Anne Boden表示,"大家都觉得颠覆性新竞争者会呈现曲棍球棒式增长,但是其实并没有出现。每个人都在期待PSD2生效之后,各家公司充分竞争,为客户提供服务。"

万事达卡公司和Visa公司以及其他长期贷款机构继续控制支付基础设施。事实上,这些机构已经开始通过抢购金融科技公司来发起攻势。12月27日,Visa的国际子公司同意以1.98亿英镑(2.52亿美元)收购总部位于伦敦的跨境支付公司Earthport Plc。

即便如此,近日发布的研究表明,巴克莱银行、苏格兰皇家银行和其他银行的银行家们都担心,假以时日,新支付规则将会撼动整个行业。对英国50位高管的调查显示,大多数人表示,法案的出台会鼓励亚马逊(Amazon.com Inc.)和谷歌(Google)等科技巨头在未来五年内推出自己的零售银行服务。

超过82%的受访者表示,与Monzo Bank Ltd.、Starling Bank和Revolut Ltd.等移动银行竞争者相比,所在的组织已经落后了。位于特拉维夫的以色列国民银行(Bank Leumi Le-Israel Ltd.)旗下的移动银行Pepper公司委托开展了上述研究。

开放银行的希望

新法律实行第一年,对欧洲金融科技行业的风险投资大幅增长。

到2019年9月,欧洲监管机构计划完成新的技术标准,准确阐明银行技术平台与外部公司建立联系的方式。来自Starling的Boden表示,希望这个过程能推动开放式银行真正落地。

Boden认为:

"监管规定要求大银行做的事情非常困难,商业理由也不一定充分,但是大银行不得不按照监管机构要求行事。但我相信,PSD2和开放式银行将彻底改变消费者和贷款公司之间的关系。只是还需要一点时间。"

When European lawmakers ushered in the era of "open banking" for consumers one year ago, both lenders and financial technology startups expected a sea change. For the first time, banks would be required to share account data with competitors as long as customers gave their permission.

Politicians in the U.K., where four banks control 75 percent of deposits, were particularly keen on the law's goal of encouraging new entrants.

But since the European Union implemented the rules, dubbed Payment Services Directive 2, Jan. 13 last year, banking in the U.K. looks pretty much the same. HSBC Holdings Plc, Barclays Plc, Royal Bank of Scotland Group Plc and Lloyds Banking Group Plc show few signs of losing significant market share on current accounts, business loans, and mortgages to the upstarts. Only four new banking licenses were issued in 2018, compared with 12 in 2017, according to the Financial Conduct Authority.

"The U.K. still hasn't seen the hockey stick of growth in disruptive new players everybody was predicting," said Anne Boden, the founder and chief executive officer of Starling Bank Ltd., a London-based digital bank with 400,000 account holders. "Everybody was expecting PSD2 to happen and all these companies would be fighting with each other to provide services to customers."

Mastercard Inc. and Visa Inc., as well as the longstanding lenders, continue to control the payment infrastructure. Indeed, these institutions are starting to go on the offensive by snapping up fintech firms. On Dec. 27, Visa's international subsidiary agreed to buy London-based cross-border payments firm Earthport Plc for 198 million pounds ($252 million).

Even so, research released today shows that bankers at Barclays, RBS, and other lenders are anxious that in time the new payments law will shake up the industry. In a survey of 50 executives in Britain, a majority said the legislation will spur technology giants such as Amazon.com Inc. and Google to unveil their own retail banking services within the next five years.

More than 82 percent of those polled say their organizations are falling behind mobile banking players such as Monzo Bank Ltd., Starling Bank, and Revolut Ltd. The research was commissioned by Pepper, a mobile bank owned by Tel-Aviv-based Bank Leumi Le-Israel Ltd.

Open Banking Hope

VC investments in European fintechs jumped in the first year of the new law.

In September, European regulators are scheduled to complete new technical standards that will set out precisely how banks must link their technology platforms to outsiders. The hope is this process will truly cement open banking into place, said Starling's Boden.

"What big banks have been asked to do is very difficult -- they don't necessarily have a commercial reason to do this, they're being forced to by a regulatory big stick," said Boden. "But I do believe PSD2 and open banking will revolutionize the relationship between consumers and lenders. It just won't happen quickly."

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