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监管机构呼吁在欧盟层面制定加密货币监管规则

据Coindesk 1月9日报道,欧洲两大监管机构相继呼吁要在欧盟层面制定加密货币和ICO的监管规则。

作为欧盟监管机构之一的欧洲银行管理局(EBA)已经首先开始敦促欧盟委员会调查该区域是否需要统一的加密货币监管规则。

欧洲银行管理局在周三发布的一份报告中表示,目前与加密货币资产相关的活动并不属于现有欧盟金融法律的监管范畴,但由于这些活动具有“较高的行业风险”,监管机构需要制定适当的规则来保护投资者。为此,欧洲银行管理局要求欧盟委员会进行“全面”分析,以确定需要在欧盟层面采取何种行动。

欧洲银行管理局执行董事Adam Farkas在一份声明中说道:

欧洲银行管理局向消费者和机构发出的关于虚拟货币的警告仍然有效。欧洲银行管理局呼吁欧盟委员会就是否需要对加密货币采取监管行动进行评估,以实现欧盟对加密货币资产能有统一的态度和处理方式。欧洲银行管理局将继续审慎行事并从消费者的角度来监控这一市场的发展。

此外,欧洲银行管理局还建议欧盟委员会考虑全球洗钱监督机构金融行动特别工作组(FATF)将于今年6月发布的建议。

金融行动特别工作组预计将发布涵盖加密货币交易所、数字钱包提供商和首次代币发行(ICO)的国际加密货币监管指南。

与此同时,欧洲银行管理局表示它将在2019年全年采取一系列措施来监控加密货币行业,比如为加密货币活动开发一个共同的监控模板,评估与该行业广告相关的商业惯例,确定银行对加密货币资产的处理方式和态度等。

欧盟的第二家监管机构,欧洲证券和市场管理局(ESMA)也同时发布了一份关于加密货币资产和首次代币发行的报告。该机构就可能适用于加密货币资产的现有规则,向欧盟委员会、理事会和议会提供建议,并进一步列出任何可供政策制定者考虑的监管漏洞。

值得注意的是,尽管可能需要进行一些调整,但是欧洲证券和市场管理局表示一些加密货币资产可能属于欧盟的MiFID(欧盟金融工具市场法规)的金融框架,并被归类为金融工具。

欧洲证券和市场管理局主席Steven Maijoor说道:

我们对国家主管部门(NCA)的调查强调,一些加密货币资产可能有资格作为MiFID框架下的金融工具,这样全套的欧盟金融规则都将适用于这类加密码货币。然而,由于现有规则的设计没有考虑到这些金融工具,国家主管部门在解释现有监管需求时面临挑战,并且某些监管需求并没有适应加密货币资产的特定特征。

当然,另一种类的加密货币不属于MiFID,但仍然必须遵守反洗钱规则。此外,政府机构还应加强对加密货币的风险披露,并提醒消费者在投资加密货币资产时注意潜在风险。

Maijoor总结说道:

为了在整个欧盟建立一个公平的竞争环境,并确保投资者能得到充分的保护,我们认为确定的监管缺失和问题最好在欧洲层面得到解决。

Two major European regulators have separately called for cryptocurrency and ICO rules at the EU level.

Firstly, the European Banking Authority (EBA), a regulatory agency of the EU, has urged the European Commission to examine whether unified crypto rules are needed across the region.

In a report published Tuesday, the EBA said that crypto asset-related activities do not currently fall under existing EU financial laws and, as these activities are “highly risky,” appropriate rules need to be put in place to protect investors.

The EBA has, therefore, asked the commission to carry out a “comprehensive” analysis to determine what action may be required at the EU level.

Adam Farkas, the EBA’s executive director, said in a statement:

“The EBA’s warnings to consumers and institutions on virtual currencies remain valid. The EBA calls on the European Commission to assess whether regulatory action is needed to achieve a common EU approach to crypto-assets. The EBA continues to monitor market developments from a prudential and consumer perspective.”

The EBA also advised the commission to take into account recommendations to be issued by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), the global money-laundering watchdog, in June of this year.

The FATF is expected to issue guidance for international cryptocurrency regulation covering crypto exchanges, digital wallet providers and initial coin offerings (ICOs).

Meanwhile, throughout 2019, the EBA said it will take a number of steps to monitor the crypto sector, such as developing a common monitoring template for crypto activities, assessing business practices regarding advertisements in the industry, determining the treatment of banks’ holdings or exposures to crypto assets, and more.

A second regulatory agency in the economic bloc, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), also published a report on crypto assets and ICOs today. It advises the EU’s Commission, Council and Parliament on the existing rules that could be applied to crypto assets and further sets out any regulatory gaps to consider for policymakers.

Notably, it says that some crypto assets could fall under the EU’s MiFID financial framework and be classed as financial instruments, although some adjustments may be required.

Steven Maijoor, ESMA chair, said:

“Our survey of NCAs highlighted that some crypto-assets may qualify as MiFID financial instruments, in which case the full set of EU financial rules would apply. However, because the existing rules were not designed with these instruments in mind, NCAs face challenges in interpreting the existing requirements and certain requirements are not adapted to the specific characteristics of crypto-assets.

Another category of cryptos would not fall under MiFID, but should still have to comply with anti-money laundering rules. Additionally, risk disclosure should also be enforced, to alert consumers to potential risks when investing in crypto assets, it said.

“In order to have a level playing field and to ensure adequate investor protection across the EU, we consider that the gaps and issues identified would best be addressed at the European level,” Maijoor concluded.

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