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印度:如发现用户使用加密货币,将关闭其银行账户

作为世界上人口第二多,人口超过 13 亿的新兴国家,作为金砖成员国,印度在加密货币领域的措施可能对该行业产生强大影响。

近日,印度的一些银行开始向客户发出警告,如果发现他们有涉及使用加密货币的行为,将关闭其银行账户。

根据印度推特名为 CryptoGirl 的账户发布的一条推文,发布警告的银行表示,他们这样做是为了遵守印度央行 发布的规定。其中一条推文显示,印度央行已迫使银行关闭任何加密货币用户的账户,此举似乎是在间接禁止这些用户使用加密货币。

根据印度央行(印度储备银行,The Reserve Bank of India,RBI)的通告,2018 年 4 月 6 日,印度央行发布禁令,要求所有受监管的金融机构停止向从事加密货币交易的企业和个人提供服务。这些服务包括维持帐户、登记、交易、结算、清算、以虚拟货币作抵押发放贷款、接受虚拟货币作抵押、开立与虚拟货币交易的交易所帐户,以及在与虚拟货币买卖有关的帐户内转账或收钱。

如果发现有人参与禁令中提到的任何业务,印度央行将在通知用户 30 天后关闭账户。一旦这段时间过去,用户将无法提取或使用他们的资金。

推文还展示了印度一些银行发布的免责声明,声明自己可以强制用户不参与任何涉及使用虚拟货币吃的行为,否则自己将有权利关闭用户在其银行的银行账户权限,“如果确定用户没有遵守这项规定,我们可以直接关闭其银行账户,无需进一步通知他们。”印度银行声称。

印度银行的这项措施似乎是政府为避免民众使用加密货币而做出的努力。尽管印度最高法院 (Supreme Court of India) 下令澄清政府对加密货币的立场(加密货币并非完全非法),但由于政府未能遵守最高法院的命令,仍存在监管缺失,所以才导致此类情况发生。

实际上印度是最早开始接触加密货币的国家之一。早在 2012 年,印度就已经开始进行小规模的比特币交易。到 2013 年,包括酒吧和餐馆在内的一些企业开始接受 BTC 付款,随后还出现了一批加密交易平台,比如:BtcxIndia、Unocoin、Coinsecure、Zebpay、Koinex 等等。

印度的加密市场已经从 2013 年的初创发展快速发展到严厉禁令发布之前的活跃水平。据估计,印度有超过 500 万活跃的交易者。印度加密货币交易所 Coindelta 的报告显示,5 月份的日交易量约为 7,500 万美元。

印度央行于去年 4 月发布严厉禁令之后,加密货币的支持者并没有放弃努力。由于对央行的全面禁令感到失望,多家加密货币交易平台将央行告上法庭。

2018 年 5 月,最高法院对针对印度央行的多起加密货币案进行集中处理。在夏季假期结束前,法院要求交易平台就禁令与央行进行直接磋商。它还要求印度司法部长 KK Venugopal 出席在 7 月 20 日举行的听证会。

2018 年 5 月底到 6 月第一周,交易平台向印度央行递交了关于取消禁令原因的详细申述,并表示愿意接受更多的审查,愿意受到监管。与此同时,一位驻新德里的律师就印度央行禁令的知情权问题表态称,在对这些交易平台进行严厉打击之前,央行没有做过任何调研,也没有银行业监管机构成立过专门的研究小组。

2018 年 7 月,一些上诉者向最高法院申请暂缓执行禁令,至少延迟到下一次听证会。但他们的请求遭到了拒绝。

随着 7 月最后期限的临近,交易所和投资者加大了抗议央行禁令的力度,并将他们的请愿提交到印度最高法院。

2018 年 7 月 20 日,印度最高法院将就该国的加密货币问题作出决议。由首席大法官 Dipak Misra 领导的印度最高法院裁定支持 RBI,坚持加密货币禁令并接受 RBI 的论点。印度储备银行的主要论点是印度法律本身禁止加密货币,因为它要求所有法定货币必须是实体货币,并由政府背书。

现在印度银行以威胁关闭银行账户的方式来禁止用户使用加密货币,也可以说是借着加密货币市场寒冬来重挫加密货币,配合着去年 4 月份出台的 RBI 加密禁令,想把加密货币一网打尽,但同时又不放弃区块链这项技术,如此看来,印度也是在向 “无币区块链” 进军。

A group of banks in India has begun to issue warnings to customers threatening to close their accounts in the event that they are found to have performed acts involving the use of cryptocurrencies.

According to a tweet published by Indian CryptoGirl, the banks that have issued the warnings indicate that they have done so in order to comply with regulations issued by the Royal Bank of India (the country’s central bank). One of the tweets shows how the RBI has compelled banks to close the accounts of any user of cryptocurrency in what seems to be a move to indirectly ban them:

“As per RBI vide its circular RBI/2017-18/154 DBR.No.BP.CP 104 /08.13.102/2017-18 dated April 6, 2018, regulator has mandated Banks to close the accounts of customers who had undertaken transactions in virtual currency / Bit coins (sic) any time during the tenure of the account & that Banks shall not deal in Virtual Currencies or provide services for facilitating any person or entity in dealing with or settling virtual currencies. These services include maintaining accounts, registering, trading, settling, clearing, giving loans against virtual tokens, accepting them as collateral, opening accounts of exchanges dealing with them and transfer/receipt of money in accounts relating to purchase / sale of virtual currencies”.

India: Where Bitcoin is Legally Allowed but Practically Forbidden

If a person is found to have been involved in any of the businesses mentioned in the quotation, the bank will close the account 30 days after the user has been notified. Once this period has elapsed, the user will not be able to withdraw or use their funds.

"We noticed you did a transaction involving crypto, hence, we will close your account within 30 days"

– Kotak Mahindra Bank

P.S: Glad they're doing it for me pic.twitter.com/JIWzeU54i5

— Indian CryptoGirl (@DesiCryptoHodlr) January 12, 2019

Another of the tweets shows a disclaimer by a bank forcing users to accept a clause declaring that they will not carry out any type of transaction in cryptocurrencies, recognizing the right of the bank to close their accounts “without further intimation” should it be determined that they failed to comply with that stipulation:

Banks in India are now saying they will now close customers' accounts if they deal in cryptocurrencies.

These legacy institutions fear what they can't control, but people should be allowed to do whatever they want with their wealth.

Long Bitcoin, Short the Bankers! pic.twitter.com/vvjniodaiL

— Pomp  (@APompliano) January 11, 2019

The measure appears to be an effort by the state to avoid the use of cryptocurrencies. Although the Supreme Court of India ordered the clarification of a government stance regarding cryptocurrencies -which are not entirely illegal- there is still a regulatory void that allows situations like this to happen as the government failed to comply with the Court’s order.

Finally! The crypto matter came up for hearing in court today & Supreme court has asked Govt. to file an affidavit related to the findings of the crypto committee set up by them. They're supposed to submit this within 2 weeks. Things are getting interesting! #isupportcrypto

— Nischal (WazirX) (@NischalShetty) October 25, 2018

Let's wait and watch about the situation. Crypto isn't illegal in India currently so there's nothing to worry about. Hoping we get a favorable outcome from the court case.

— Nischal (WazirX)  (@NischalShetty) October 25, 2018

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