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2018全球加密货币监管概览-亚太篇

全新的互联网金融模式国际资讯

2018全球加密货币监管概览-亚太篇

如果说2017年是首次代币发行(ICO)的一年,那么2018年似乎注定成为政府管理加密货币的关键一年。

由于世界各国都在着手处理并试图确定如何解决加密货币问题,形势逐渐变得严峻起来。有些国家对加密货币持友好态度,有些国家持谨慎态度,还有一些则表示明确反对。

本系列文章共分四章,在今天这篇文章中,我们将主要向您介绍一下亚太地区的加密货币监管政策。

相关阅读:《2018全球加密货币监管概览-美洲篇

日本

中国和韩国对加密货币总体保持敌意且态度多变。虽然日本的数字货币监管其实并不宽松,但该国政府对加密货币的态度总体来说还是要比它的亚洲邻居更友好。

不过,最近的一系列事件可能激怒了日本的加密货币狂热者。在2018年1月26日,日本一家交易所被黑,价值约5.3亿美元的新经币失窃,引发了强烈的社会反响,日本金融厅(FSA)也对加密货币进行严格监管。

中国

中国一直在采取措施打压各种加密货币。一开始是禁止ICO,此后还要求冻结相关交易的银行账户,打击比特币矿工,在全国范围内对互联网及移动端所有加密货币相关交易进行查禁。

中国成为加密货币活动主要经济体中监管最严格的国家。这是一个反常的变化,因为在2017年,中国的比特币矿工超过全世界挖矿人数的50%,并且中国对加密货币接受度的增长率也比其他任何国家都高。

中国的监管很严格,但就目前该国着重阻止资本外流、治理腐败的政策走向来说,这些监管就显得很合理了。

韩国

韩国的监管规定从何讲起呢?

韩国以前有大量加密货币。在去年,由于中国打击加密货币,韩国就成了中国加密货币投资者所关注的国家。不过在2018年1月,韩国几名重要官员在未来数字货币产业监管措施方面产生了分歧,措施包括了公告、澄清、误报以及限制应用等。

2018年1月23日,韩国官员开始禁止匿名账户进行加密货币交易。2018年1月30日,市场暴跌,出现"红色星期二"。有人认为这一现象是由监管的不确定性以及潜在的负面效应造成的。

弹劾韩上任总统后不到一年的时间内,韩国政府又出现了外部监管问题,即纽约州金融服务局对其数字货币监管进行干预。据报道,在2018年1月26日,该机构要求六家在纽约有分支的韩国商业银行提交加密货币相关客户的账户信息。

新加坡

直到最近,相比亚洲其它国家,亚洲金融和银行中心新加坡对于加密货币的监管还是比较宽松的。

和许多金融监管部门一样,新加坡金融管理局(MAS)在2017年12月比特币价格高点时,警告了加密货币市场的投机风险。同月,新加坡国际商业法庭审判一个关于比特币交易争议案件,似乎让这个有争论的经济市场走向了合法化。

在2018年1月9日,新加坡的副总理Tharman Shanmugaratnam表示,"无论交易使用的是法币、加密货币亦或其他价值传递的新手段,均适用国家法律。"

2018年1月24日,新加坡金融管理局首席金融技术官Sopnendu Mohanty表示,此刻他没有预料到比特币会经历一次莱曼兄弟式的金融危机,而且现在有"一个很明显的暗示,即监管者要对整个加密货币市场进行更严格的监管。"

Mohanty同时也强调,监管者可能需要针对比特币这类数字货币为消费者提供相应保护政策,让它可以持续增长。虽然新加坡金融管理局现在尚无任何说明,但是2018年1月26日日本交易所Coincheck被卷走的5.3亿美元目标指向新加坡的新经币。

印度

印度过去为加密货币的发展创造了良好的环境,在2018年也开始打击加密货币。印度的强硬立场源于与其他国家相同的顾虑,比如洗钱、非法活动、资助恐怖主义、逃税等诸多问题。

印度社会虽然以使用现金为主,也对数字货币仍然进行了严格监管,不过,当地加密货币产业从业者并不认为印度能和中国一样以监管的方式"禁止"加密货币。

澳大利亚

澳大利亚联邦银行2017年深陷金融丑闻,该国政府试图通过加强实施反洗钱法及监管数字货币以跟进日本的脚步。这和澳大利亚政府2015年的观点不太一致,那时候,该国政府希望对加密货币采取"不干涉"政策。

据称,该国由于监管不明确,产生了一定负面影响。2017年末,澳大利亚加密货币经纪人影响了澳元的储蓄。在2017年12月,我们还发现,澳大利亚税务局(ATO)发布了一则公告,公告暗示了该国未来可能采取的监管方式。

澳大利亚税务局的指南强调说:

"用比特币进行交易和易货贸易协定相似,税务责任相同。我们认为,比特币既不是钱也不是外国货币,同时比特币的供给并不是以商品和劳务税为目的的金融供给。比特币是一种以资本利得税为目的的资产。"

不过,澳大利亚政府中也有数字货币的支持者,在2017年8月,两大主要党派的参议员(工党和联合政党)向澳洲联储呼吁,要求承认加密货币是官方货币。

因此在澳大利亚,未来的监管仍然不确定,但是可能会对数字货币持友好态度。

If 2017 was the year of the ICO, it seems as if 2018 is destined to become the year of regulatory reckoning.

Things have already begun to heat up as countries around the world grapple with cryptocurrencies and try to determine how they are going to treat them. Some are welcoming, others are cautious. And some countries are downright antagonistic.

Japan

Japan isn’t particularly liberal toward digital currency regulation; it’s merely winning the race to attract the best from Asia’s cryptocurrency industry, as China and South Korea have been creating hostile/uncertain environments. Whether or not Japan will allow for a cryptocurrency-themed J-pop band, the Japanese government has certainly been more welcoming of cryptocurrencies than its Asian neighbors.

Recent events may have tempered Japanese enthusiasm for cryptocurrencies, however. The hack of a Japanese exchange on January 26, 2018, resulting in the loss of $530 million worth of NEM coins, has prompted a backlash from the community and closer oversight from the Financial Services Agency (FSA).

China

China has been taking ever-increasing actions to clamp down on all things cryptocurrency. Starting off by banning ICOs, China ordered a bank account freeze associated with exchanges, kicked out bitcoin miners, and instituted a nationwide ban on internet and mobile access to all things related to cryptocurrency trading.

The People’s Republic of China appears to be the most stringent cryptocurrency regulator of the major economies regarding cryptocurrencies. This is an odd about-face given that, in 2017, Chinese bitcoin miners made up over 50 percent of the worldwide mining population and that cryptocurrency adoption in China increased at a rate higher than any other country.

Though strict, the regulatory actions of the People’s Republic of China, under the stewardship of Xi Jinping, makes contextual sense as the country has recently been focused on stemming capital outflows and stomping out corruption.

South Korea

Where to begin with South Korean regulation?

The country boasted a significant cryptocurrency presence in the past and was initially thought of as the country of refuge from the crackdowns occurring in China late last year. However, discord surfaced in January 2018 amongst top Korean officials on future regulatory actions for the digital currency industry, with declarations, clarifications, misinformation and ultimately some limited implementation.

The uncertainty and potential negative regulatory impacts have now been cited as the cause for marketwide sell-offs on Red Tuesday as well as on January 30, 2018, when Korean officials began enforcing a January 23, 2018, rule disallowing anonymous accounts from trading cryptocurrencies.

To add external regulatory drama to the political dissonance demonstrated by a government less than a year out from ousting their former president, regulatory prospects for South Koreans have also been hindered by New York State’s Department of Financial Services (DFS), as they reportedly requested customer information on accounts associated with cryptocurrency trading among six commercial Korean banks with branches in New York on January 26, 2018.

Singapore

Until recently, the finance and banking center of Asia has been relatively lax compared to many of its Asian counterparts on cryptocurrency regulation.

The Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), like many financial regulators, warned of risks of speculating in the cryptocurrency markets during the December 2017 peak in bitcoin prices. And Singapore’s International Commercial Court heard a trial that same month over a bitcoin trading dispute, seemingly to legitimize the economic stakes in dispute.

On January 9, 2018, Singapore’s Deputy Prime Minister Tharman Shanmugaratnam said that “the country’s laws do not make any distinction between transactions conducted using fiat currency, cryptocurrency or other novel ways of transmitting value.”

MAS fintech chief Sopnendu Mohanty on January 24, 2018, stated that he does not foresee a Lehman Brothers-like financial meltdown with Bitcoin at this point in time, adding that there is “a great indication that regulators are getting serious about this whole cryptocurrency market.”

Mohanty also stated regulators would need to apply consumer protections for digital currencies like bitcoin for it to continue to grow. While there has been no statement yet from the Monetary Authority of Singapore, the $530 million hack that attacked Japanese exchange Coincheck on January 26, 2018, targeted Singaporean-based NEM coins.

India

India, once viewed as a burgeoning, friendly environment for cryptocurrencies, has been clamping down on cryptocurrencies in 2018. India’s tough stance stems from similar concerns that other, more stringent regulatory regimes have cited: money laundering, illegal activity proliferation, sponsorship of terrorism, tax evasion, etc.

While the cash-reliant country is facing stern regulations, participants of the local cryptocurrency industry do not believe India can “ban” cryptocurrencies through regulations in the same way China has.

Australia

In the wake of the August 2017 financial scandal surrounding the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, the Australian government sought to follow in Japan’s footsteps by strengthening its anti-money laundering laws and regulating digital currencies. This differed slightly from the view in 2015 that the Aussie government would seek a “hands-off” approach to cryptocurrencies.

Still, the lack of more concise regulation has purportedly had a negative impact on the country as the end of 2017 saw Australian cryptocurrency brokers halt Australian dollar deposits. December 2017 also saw an issuance from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) which hinted at the way potential future regulation could go.

The ATO guidance stated:

Transacting with bitcoin is akin to a barter arrangement, with similar tax consequences. Our view is that bitcoin is neither money nor a foreign currency, and the supply of bitcoin is not a financial supply for goods and services tax (GST) purposes. Bitcoin is, however, an asset for capital gains tax (CGT) purposes.

Australia, however, has supporters of digital currencies in government, as August 2017 saw senators from both major parties (Labor and Coalition) stepping forward to call on the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to accept cryptocurrencies as an official form of currency.

Therefore, the future of further cryptocurrency regulation remains uncertain but potentially industry-friendly in the land down under.

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